Bernard Montgomeri, Tim Moreman

Bernard Montgomeri, Tim Moreman

Bernard Montgomeri, Tim Moreman

Bernard Montgomeri, Tim Moreman

Buyruq 9

Dala-marshal Bernard Montgomeri Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining eng mashhur va, ehtimol, eng muvaffaqiyatli britaniya generali edi, u Rommelni Misrdan, oxir-oqibat Afrikadan quvib chiqargan sakkizinchi armiyani boshqargan, so'ngra D-Day qo'nish qo'mondonligini o'z qo'liga olgan. Ittifoqchilarning Germaniyaga qarshi eng muhim operatsiyasi.

Moreman o'z mavzusida kamchiliklar borligini tan olishga tayyor - Montgomeri takabbur, xushmuomala, kambag'al diplomat edi va rejalarini o'zgartirishga majbur bo'lganida (ehtimol, eng mashhuri Normandiya jangi paytida, tan olishdan bosh tortish odati bor edi). G'arbda amerikaliklarga hujum qilishiga ruxsat berish uchun nemislarni Kan atrofida ushlab turish haqidagi asosiy g'oya kampaniya davomida o'z o'rnida qoldi, inglizlar Kanni kutilganidek tezroq qabul qila olmasligi Montgomerini rejalarini qayta ko'rib chiqishga majbur qildi. u ancha kam egiluvchan qo'mondon edi va amerikalik ittifoqchilari bilan o'z pozitsiyasini zaiflashtirdi.

Moreman, odatda, Montgomeri va uning qobiliyatlari haqida ijobiy fikrda, lekin uning obro'si yillar mobaynida qanday o'zgargani haqidagi bo'limni o'z ichiga oladi, chunki u urushdan keyingi davrda, so'nggi yillarda tiklanishigacha cho'qqisidan tushib ketdi.

Bu Montgomeri harbiy rahbar sifatida foydali tahlil bo'lib, u nima uchun muvaffaqiyat qozongani va nima uchun ko'p odamlarni bezovta qilgani haqida yaxshi tasavvur beradi.

Bo'limlar
Erta hayot
Harbiy hayot, 1906-42
Taqdir soatlari
Qarama -qarshi qo'mondonlar
Aql ichida
Urush tugagach
So'z bilan aytganda hayot
Bibliografiya

Muallif: Tim Moreman
Nashr: qog'ozli qog'oz
Sahifalar: 64
Nashriyotchi: Osprey
Yil: 2010



Bernard Montgomeri Paperback - Tasvirlangan, 20 noyabr 2010 yil

Osprey "Liderlik-strategiya-mojaro" turkumiga xush kelibsiz yozuv. Bu erda biz Ikkinchi Jahon urushidagi Buyuk Britaniyaning etakchisi Bernard Montgomeri haqida ko'proq bilib olamiz. Jild * *(4-bet): "Alameynlik dala-marshal Bernard Law Montgomery (1887-1978), ehtimol, Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining eng taniqli va, ehtimol, eng ziddiyatli Britaniya generali", deb ta'kidlash bilan boshlanadi.

Bu asarda uning birinchi yillari (qisqacha) va Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining dastlabki yillaridagi harbiy faoliyati tasvirlangan. Ishning markazi uning shimoliy Afrikada qo'mondonlik qilishi, Sitsiliyadagi rahbarligi va, albatta, D-Daydagi roli bilan boshlanadi. Al -Alameindagi Afrika Korpusi va Edvin Rommelga qarshi roli uni mashhurlikka olib keldi. Buyuk Britaniyaning g'alabasi uning nomini oldi.
Kitobda uning ishi, siğillari va hammasi tasvirlangan (Eyzenxauerning bosh qo'mondonlik rolidan juda qattiq va norozi). Uning Sitsiliya kampaniyasidagi etakchisiga kerakli darajada batafsil aytilmagan. D-Daygacha bo'lgan uning ishi haqida batafsilroq ma'lumot berilgan.
Kitob uning etakchiligini tasvirlaydigan yaxshi ish-muvaffaqiyatli va omadsiz (ikkinchisi uning botirlik hujumi, "Market Garden" operatsiyasi bilan ajoyib tarzda tasvirlangan).

Bu ish Montgomerining ishiga adolatli baho berish bilan tugaydi

Bernard Montgomeri - qisqacha tarjimai holida yozish qiyin bo'lgan general, muallif Tim Moreman yaxshi ish qiladi. Bu sarlavhani hamma o'quvchi uning narxi va uzunligini so'rashi mumkin (62 bet). Iste'molchi sifatida men Montgomerining asosiy xulosasini, shu jumladan, keyingi o'qish uchun qayerga borish kerakligi haqidagi so'nggi ma'lumotlarni olishni xohlardim. Bu unvon nafaqat bu rolni bajaradi, balki undan oshib ketadi.

Muallif Moreman, Montgomeri -ning ba'zi kuchli tomonlarini, ayniqsa, tafsilotlarga jiddiy e'tibor qaratganligini ta'kidlaydi, bu 2 -Alameynda hayotiy ahamiyatga ega bo'lgan va, ehtimol, Normandiya qo'nish paytida ajralmas. Montining ko'rgazmali mahorati, sahro mag'lubiyatidan so'ng, 8 -armiyaga kerak bo'lgan narsa edi, garchi uning buyuk komandirlarga bo'lgan munosabati, ayniqsa Auchinlek (muallif tan olganidek, unga ko'p qarzdor bo'lgan). Montgomerining nutqni tuzuvchi xarizmasi va oddiy askarga qiziqish ko'rsatish qobiliyati 1944 yilda urushdan charchagan Buyuk Britaniya uchun juda yaxshi ish qildi.

Doktor Fortsik o'z sharhida ta'kidlaganidek, muallif, ayniqsa, sitsiliya va italyan kampaniyalarida bo'shliqlarni qoldirgan, lekin menimcha, bu murakkab, hatto qiynoqqa solingan odamning barcha qirralarini etarlicha yoritib berish uchun zarur bo'lgan qurbonlik edi. Muallif, asosan, Shimoliy Afrikadagi Montgomeri davriga va Normandiya kampaniyasiga e'tibor qaratib, muallif Montgomerining jang maydonlari qo'mondoni sifatida o'zining kuchli va zaif tomonlariga etarlicha chuqurlik bera oladi. Bundan tashqari, Montgomerining shaxsiy hayoti, uning qiyin bolaligi va baxtli, ammo afsuski, qisqartirilgan nikohi haqida o'quvchiga odamning ichini ko'rishga yordam beradigan etarli ma'lumotlar mavjud. Tarixchi munozarali psixo-tarix sohasida muloyimlik bilan yurishi kerak. Bu Tim Moreman, Montgomerining, ba'zida shubhali xatti-harakatining ichki sabablarini ko'rsatib, tavakkal qiladigan, odatda ma'nosiz psixo-mo''jizaviy ruhiyatga kirmasdan, qila oladi. Ba'zida o'quvchi Montining takabburligidan va insoniy vaziyatlarga sezgir bo'lmaganidan xafa bo'ladi.

Oxirgi bonus sifatida rasmlar birinchi darajali. Sarlavhalarning aksariyati matnni yaxshi to'ldiradigan qo'shimcha ma'lumotlarni beradi. Illustrator Grexem Tyornerning rasmlari shaxsiyat va jang maydonidagi vaziyatlarni deyarli hayajonlantiradi. Hozirgi va deyarli oltmish yil oldin bo'lgan urush o'rtasidagi chang masofani kamaytiradigan juda ko'p rangli rangli fotosuratlar mavjud. Umuman olganda, qisqacha tarjimai hol va yoqimli o'qish.

Men amerikalik va britaniyalik tarixchilarni Ikkinchi jahon urushidagi feldmarshal Bernard Montgomerining martabasini baholashdan ko'ra, janjalli guruhlarga ajratish ehtimoli ko'proq ekanligiga shubha qilaman. 1943-45 yillar davomida u bilan ishlagan AQSh armiyasi ofitserlari ta'sirida bo'lgan Amerika fikri, odatda, dushman va salbiy edi. Qarama-qarshi tomondan, Britaniya fikri 1960-yillarning o'rtalarida Montgomerini ma'qul ko'rdi va uni Vellington gersogi bilan solishtirdi, lekin keyinchalik Correlli Barnett kabi mualliflarning revizionist hisoblari asosida juda tanqidiy bo'lib qoldi. Yaqinda Montgomerining obro'si Atlantikaning har ikki tomonida yanada muvozanatli ko'rinishni boshladi va Tim Moremanning Ospreyning "Buyruqlar" seriyasidagi tarjimai holi bu jarayonning bir qismidir. Bu jildda Montgomeri hali ham hayratlanarli ofitser (yoki hatto odam) sifatida uchramaydi, garchi uning harbiy salohiyati o'ziga yarasha baholanadi. Muallif shunday xulosa qiladi: "Montgomeri, o'zini ishonganidek, buyuk kapitan emas edi, lekin, shubhasiz, Buyuk Britaniya Evropadagi Axis kuchlariga qarshi, Shimoliy Afrika va Shimoli -G'arbiyda muvaffaqiyatli o'tkazgan muvaffaqiyatiga ko'ra, eng yaxshi va eng muvaffaqiyatli general edi. Evropa ". Umuman olganda, bu jild Montgomerini professional askar sifatida tasvirlashda muvaffaqiyat qozondi, garchi u oddiy ijtimoiy ko'nikmalardan mahrum bo'lsa (menimcha, biz uni bugun "harbiy nodon" deb atashimiz mumkin). Biroq, jild mashhur va jangli janglar atrofida tuzilgan (El-Alamein, Normandiya, Arnhem va Ardennes) va Montgomerining urush davridagi operatsiyalarining katta qismini qamrab ololmaydi. Shunday qilib, muallif shunday javobga olib kelgan "matematikani" ko'rsata olmaydigan xulosaga keladi. Hatto ketma -ket cheklangan sahifalarda ham, Maret chizig'i jangi va Sitsiliyadagi kampaniya har bir rasmning taglavhasidan ko'ra ko'proq e'tiborga loyiqdir.

Yozuvchi Ikkinchi jahon urushidan oldingi Montgomerining erta hayotini (ota -onasini nomukammal fe'l -atvorida ayblaydi) va harbiy karerasini tasvirlab berishda juda yaxshi ish qilgan. Muallif 1914 yilda og'ir yaralanganidan so'ng, Montgomeri 1917 yilda G-3 korpusi (Operatsiyalar) va 1918 yilda bo'linma boshlig'i bo'lish bilan yakunlangan muhim xodimlar topshirig'iga aylantirildi. Bu lavozimlar Montgomeriga ko'p rejalashtirish tajribasi uni britaniyalik tengdoshlarining ko'pchiligidan va keyinchalik u bilan shug'ullanadigan deyarli barcha amerikalik ofitserlardan ajratib turardi. Montgomeri bunga piyoda polk, keyin brigada, keyin 1930 -yillarda diviziya buyrug'i bilan amal qildi. Shu nuqtai nazardan qaraganda, keyinchalik Montgomeri nima uchun Eyzenxauer va Bredli kabi havaskorlarni shunchalik rad etganini tushunish oson. Afsuski, muallif Ikkinchi Jahon Urushiga ko'chib o'tgach, u Montgomerining karerasini ko'zdan kechirishni boshlaydi, Dyunkerdagi 3 -divizion qo'mondonligini ikki jumla bilan muhokama qiladi va Dieppe Raidini rejalashtirishda uning roli haqida hech qanday eslatma qoldiradi. Biroq, El-Alamein 14 sahifadan iborat (lekin bu asosiy voqeadan oldingi qimmatbaho shakllantirish operatsiyalari haqida eslatib o'tmaydi) va bu Montgomerining general sifatidagi mahoratining markaziy qismi bo'lishi aniq. Montgomerining izlanishlari "beg'ubor" bo'lganini tan olish bilan birga, uning jangdagi umumiy ko'rsatkichlari muvaffaqiyatli deb baholanmoqda. Ehtimol, bu hali ham juda gumon qilingan, chunki 8 -chi armiya aslida Alameynda toza yutuqqa erisha olmadi - nemislarni yoqilg'i va zaxiradan chiqarib yubordi. Keyin muallif Montgomerining Tunis, Sitsiliya yoki Italiyadagi kampaniyalari haqida deyarli hech qanday eslatmani o'tkazib yubormaydi - bir yarim yil. Men shuni bildimki, Montgomerining urush davridagi faoliyatining katta qismini, ayniqsa, bahsli elementlar bo'lganida, bu jildning eng jiddiy zaifligi deb topdim.

Keyin muallif Montgomerining Normandiya kampaniyasidagi roliga qariyb 10 sahifa sarflaydi. Ittifoqchilar kanal bo'ylab o'tib keta olmasligi va Montgomerining Overlord rejasidagi dori -darmonsiz qolishi mumkin emasligi baland ovoz bilan e'lon qilinadi. Balki, lekin rejaga, xususan, logistika sohasida muhim hissa qo'shgan boshqa ofitserlar borligini aytib o'tish yaxshiroq bo'lardi. Montgomerining Caenni qo'lga kirita olmasligi va Gudvud operatsiyasi kabi qimmatbaho muvaffaqiyatsizliklar borligini tan olishsa -da, muallif ko'p narsalarga ijobiy ta'sir ko'rsatishga yoki yoqimsiz narsalarni qoldirishga harakat qiladi - masalan, Falaise Gapini zudlik bilan muhrlay olmaslik haqidagi bahs. Keyin muallif mag'lubiyat sifatida e'tirof etilgan "Market-Garden" operatsiyasini muhokama qiladi. Haqiqatan ham, ta'qib 1944 yil sentyabr oyida qanday olib borilgani haqida hikoyada bundan ko'proq narsa bor edi. Bu bo'lim Montgomerining Bolge jangidagi roli bilan tugaydi, uning Reyn o'tish joyi haqida juda kam gapiriladi. 1945 yil yoki Shimoliy Germaniyada keyingi operatsiyalar. Montgomeri karyerasining ko'p qismi uning general sifatida kuchli va zaif tomonlarini oqilona baholashga imkon bermaydi.

Keyin muallif Montgomeri raqiblariga bag'ishlangan, bu Ervin Rommelning qisqacha tarjimai holi. Montgomeri Kesselring, Student, Rundstedt, Model va fon Klyuge bilan ham jang qilgani haqida deyarli hech narsa aytilmagan. Oxirgi bo'limlarda Montgomerining urushdan keyingi karerasi, tarixshunoslikdagi o'rni va "Aql ichi" haqida so'z boradi. Muallif diqqatini jamlashni tanlagan sohalarda juda hayratlanarli ishni bajaradi, lekin Montgomeriga to'g'ri baho berish kabi biror narsani qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun etarli qamrov yo'q. Montgomerining Ultra razvedkadan foydalanishi, logistika sohasiga bo'lgan e'tibor va AQShga bo'ysunmaganlar (kanadaliklar, polyaklar) bilan aloqasi kabi muhim savollar deyarli e'tiborga olinmaydi. Aslida, Montgomeri uchun Al -Alameyndan ko'ra ko'proq narsa bor edi, lekin uning karerasi epizodik tarzda muhokama qilinishi uchun juda ziddiyatli.


Bernard Montgomeri: № 9 (buyruq)

Osprey "Liderlik-strategiya-mojaro" turkumiga xush kelibsiz yozuv. Bu erda biz Ikkinchi Jahon urushidagi Buyuk Britaniyaning etakchisi Bernard Montgomeri haqida ko'proq bilib olamiz. Jild *(4-bet): "Alameinning fel-marshali Bernard Law Montgomery (1887-1978), ehtimol, Ikkinchi jahon urushining eng taniqli va, ehtimol, eng ziddiyatli Britaniya generali", deb ta'kidlash bilan boshlanadi.

Bu asarda uning birinchi yillari (qisqacha) va Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining dastlabki yillaridagi harbiy faoliyati tasvirlangan. Ishning markazi uning shimoliy Afrikada qo'mondonlik qilishi, Sitsiliyadagi rahbarligi va, albatta, D-Daydagi roli bilan boshlanadi. Al -Alameindagi Afrika Korpusi va Edvin Rommelga qarshi roli uni mashhurlikka olib keldi. Buyuk Britaniyaning g'alabasi uning nomini oldi.
Kitobda uning ishi, siğillari va hammasi tasvirlangan (Eyzenxauerning bosh qo'mondonlik rolidan juda qattiq va norozi). Uning Sitsiliya kampaniyasidagi etakchisiga kerakli darajada batafsil aytilmagan. D-Daygacha bo'lgan uning ishi haqida batafsilroq ma'lumot berilgan.
Kitob uning etakchiligini tasvirlaydigan yaxshi ish-muvaffaqiyatli va omadsiz (ikkinchisi uning botirlik hujumi, "Market Garden" operatsiyasi bilan ajoyib tarzda tasvirlangan).

Bu ish Montgomerining ishiga adolatli baho berish bilan tugaydi

Bernard Montgomeri - qisqacha tarjimai holida yozish qiyin bo'lgan general, muallif Tim Moreman yaxshi ish qiladi. Bu sarlavhani hamma o'quvchi uning narxi va uzunligini so'rashi mumkin (62 bet). Iste'molchi sifatida men Montgomerining asosiy xulosasini, shu jumladan, keyingi o'qish uchun qayerga borish kerakligi haqidagi so'nggi ma'lumotlarni olishni xohlardim. Bu unvon nafaqat bu rolni bajaradi, balki undan oshib ketadi.

Muallif Moreman, Montgomeri -ning ba'zi kuchli tomonlarini, ayniqsa, tafsilotlarga jiddiy e'tibor qaratganligini ta'kidlaydi, bu 2 -Alameynda hayotiy ahamiyatga ega bo'lgan va, ehtimol, Normandiya qo'nishi paytida ajralmas. Montining ko'rgazmali mahorati, sahro mag'lubiyatidan so'ng, 8 -armiyaga kerak bo'lgan narsa edi, garchi uning buyuk komandirlarga bo'lgan munosabati, ayniqsa Auchinlek (muallif tan olganidek, unga ko'p qarzdor bo'lgan). Montgomerining nutqni tuzuvchi xarizmasi va oddiy askarga qiziqish ko'rsatish qobiliyati 1944 yilda urushdan charchagan Buyuk Britaniya uchun juda yaxshi ish qildi.

Doktor Fortsik o'z sharhida ta'kidlaganidek, muallif, ayniqsa, sitsiliya va italyan kampaniyalarida bo'shliqlarni qoldirgan, lekin menimcha, bu murakkab, hatto qiynoqqa solingan odamning barcha qirralarini etarlicha yoritib berish uchun zarur bo'lgan qurbonlik edi. Muallif, asosan, Shimoliy Afrikadagi Montgomeri davriga va Normandiya kampaniyasiga e'tibor qaratib, muallif Montgomerining jang maydonlari qo'mondoni sifatida kuchli va zaif tomonlarini etarlicha chuqur ochib bera oladi. Bundan tashqari, Montgomerining shaxsiy hayoti, uning qiyin bolaligi va baxtli, lekin afsuski, qisqartirilgan nikohi haqida o'quvchiga odamning ichini ko'rishga yordam beradigan etarli ma'lumotlar mavjud. Tarixchi munozarali psixo-tarix sohasida muloyimlik bilan yurishi kerak. Bu Tim Moreman, Montgomerining, ba'zida shubhali xatti-harakatining ichki sabablarini ko'rsatib, xavfli, odatda ma'nosiz psixo-mo''jizaviy mantiqqa kirmasdan, qila oladi. Ba'zida o'quvchi Montining takabburligidan va insoniy vaziyatlarga sezgir bo'lmaganidan xafa bo'ladi.

Oxirgi bonus sifatida, rasmlar birinchi darajali. Sarlavhalarning aksariyati matnni yaxshi to'ldiradigan qo'shimcha ma'lumotlarni beradi. Illustrator Grexem Tyornerning rasmlari shaxsiyat va jang maydonidagi vaziyatlarni deyarli hayajonlantiradi. Hozirgi va deyarli oltmish yil oldin bo'lgan urush o'rtasidagi chang masofani kamaytiradigan juda ko'p rangli rangli fotosuratlar mavjud. Umuman olganda, qisqacha tarjimai hol va yoqimli o'qish.


Bernard Montgomeri Tim Moreman (Paperback, 2010)

Eng arzon narxdagi, yangi, ishlatilmagan, ochilmagan, asl mahsulotidagi asl mahsuloti (qadoqlash mumkin bo'lgan joyda). Qadoqlash chakana savdo do'konida bo'lgani kabi bo'lishi kerak, agar mahsulot qo'lda ishlanmagan bo'lsa yoki ishlab chiqaruvchi chakana bo'lmagan qadoqlarda, masalan, bosilmagan quti yoki plastik to'rva bilan o'ralgan bo'lsa. Qo'shimcha tavsif uchun tafsilotlarni ko'ring.

Bu narx nimani anglatadi?

Bu sotuvchi tomonidan taqdim etilgan narx (pochta aloqasi bundan mustasno) yoki unga juda o'xshash narsa sotuvga qo'yilgan yoki yaqinda sotilgan. Narx sotuvchining o'z narxi yoki boshqa sotuvchining narxi bo'lishi mumkin. "O'chirish" miqdori va foizi sotuvchining boshqa joydagi narxi va eBay -dagi sotuvchi o'rtasidagi hisoblangan farqni bildiradi. Agar ma'lum bir ro'yxatda narx va/yoki chegirma bilan bog'liq savollaringiz bo'lsa, iltimos, sotuvchi bilan bog'laning.


Bernard Montgomeri: 09

Osprey "Liderlik-strategiya-mojaro" turkumiga xush kelibsiz yozuv. Bu erda biz Ikkinchi jahon urushidagi Buyuk Britaniyaning etakchisi Bernard Montgomeri haqida ko'proq bilib olamiz. Jild *(4-bet): "Alameinning fel-marshali Bernard Law Montgomery (1887-1978), ehtimol, Ikkinchi jahon urushining eng taniqli va, ehtimol, eng ziddiyatli Britaniya generali", deb ta'kidlash bilan boshlanadi.

Bu asarda uning birinchi yillari (qisqacha) va Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining dastlabki yillaridagi harbiy faoliyati tasvirlangan. Ishning markazi uning shimoliy Afrikada qo'mondonlik qilishi, Sitsiliyadagi rahbarligi va, albatta, D-Daydagi roli bilan boshlanadi. Al -Alameindagi Afrika Korpusi va Edvin Rommelga qarshi roli uni mashhurlikka olib keldi. Buyuk Britaniyaning g'alabasi uning nomini oldi.
Kitobda uning ishi, siğillari va hammasi tasvirlangan (Eyzenxauerning bosh qo'mondonlik rolidan juda qattiq va norozi). Uning Sitsiliya kampaniyasidagi etakchisiga kerakli darajada batafsil aytilmagan. D-Daygacha bo'lgan uning ishi haqida batafsilroq ma'lumot berilgan.
Kitob uning etakchiligini tasvirlaydigan yaxshi ish-muvaffaqiyatli va muvaffaqiyatsiz (ikkinchisi uning botinka hujumi, "Market Garden" operatsiyasi bilan ajoyib tarzda tasvirlangan).

Bu ish Montgomerining ishiga adolatli baho berish bilan tugaydi

Bernard Montgomeri - qisqacha tarjimai holida yozish qiyin bo'lgan general, muallif Tim Moreman yaxshi ish qiladi. Bu sarlavhani hamma o'quvchi uning narxi va uzunligini so'rashi mumkin (62 bet). Iste'molchi sifatida men Montgomerining asosiy xulosasini, shu jumladan, keyingi o'qish uchun qayerga borish kerakligi haqidagi so'nggi ma'lumotlarni olishni xohlardim. Bu unvon nafaqat bu rolni bajaradi, balki undan oshib ketadi.

Muallif Moreman, Montgomeri -ning ba'zi kuchli tomonlarini, ayniqsa, tafsilotlarga jiddiy e'tibor qaratganligini ta'kidlaydi, bu 2 -Alameynda hayotiy ahamiyatga ega bo'lgan va, ehtimol, Normandiya qo'nishi paytida ajralmas. Montining ko'rgazmali mahorati, sahro mag'lubiyatidan so'ng, 8 -armiyaga kerak bo'lgan narsa edi, garchi uning buyuk komandirlarga bo'lgan munosabati, ayniqsa Auchinleck (muallif tan olganidek, unga ko'p qarzdor bo'lgan). Montgomerining nutqni tuzuvchi xarizmasi va oddiy askarga qiziqish ko'rsatish qobiliyati 1944 yilda urushdan charchagan Buyuk Britaniya uchun juda yaxshi ish qildi.

Doktor Fortsik o'z sharhida ta'kidlaganidek, muallif, ayniqsa, Sitsiliya va Italiya kampaniyalarida bo'shliqlarni qoldirgan, lekin menimcha, bu murakkab, hatto qiynoqqa solingan odamning barcha jabhalarini etarlicha yoritib berish uchun zarur bo'lgan qurbonlik edi. Muallif, asosan, Shimoliy Afrikadagi Montgomeri davriga va Normandiya kampaniyasiga e'tibor qaratib, muallif Montgomerining jang maydonlari qo'mondoni sifatida kuchli va zaif tomonlarini etarlicha chuqur ochib bera oladi. Bundan tashqari, Montgomerining shaxsiy hayoti, uning qiyin bolaligi va baxtli, ammo afsuski, qisqartirilgan nikohi haqida o'quvchiga odamning ichini ko'rishga yordam beradigan etarli ma'lumotlar mavjud. Tarixchi munozarali psixo-tarix sohasida muloyimlik bilan yurishi kerak. Bu Tim Moreman, Montgomerining, ba'zida shubhali xatti-harakatining ichki sabablarini ko'rsatib, xavfli, odatda ma'nosiz psixo-mo''jizaviy mantiqqa kirmasdan, qila oladi. Ba'zida o'quvchi Montining takabburligidan va insoniy vaziyatlarga sezgir bo'lmaganidan xafa bo'ladi.

Oxirgi bonus sifatida rasmlar birinchi darajali. Sarlavhalarning aksariyati matnni yaxshi to'ldiradigan qo'shimcha ma'lumotlarni beradi. Illustrator Grexem Tyornerning rasmlari shaxsiyat va jang maydonidagi vaziyatlarni deyarli hayajonlantiradi. Hozirgi va deyarli oltmish yil oldin bo'lgan urush o'rtasidagi chang masofani kamaytiradigan juda ko'p rangli rangli fotosuratlar mavjud. Umuman olganda, qisqacha tarjimai hol va yoqimli o'qish.


[Bernard Montgomeri (Buyruq)] [Muallif: Moreman, Tim] [Noyabr, 2010] Paperback - 19 noyabr 2010 yil

Osprey "Liderlik-strategiya-mojaro" turkumiga xush kelibsiz yozuv. Bu erda biz Ikkinchi jahon urushidagi Buyuk Britaniyaning etakchisi Bernard Montgomeri haqida ko'proq bilib olamiz. Jild * *(4-bet): "Alameynlik dala-marshal Bernard Law Montgomery (1887-1978), ehtimol, Ikkinchi jahon urushining eng taniqli va, ehtimol, eng munozarali ingliz generali", deb ta'kidlash bilan boshlanadi.

Bu asarda uning birinchi yillari (qisqacha) va Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining dastlabki yillaridagi harbiy faoliyati tasvirlangan. Ishning markazi uning shimoliy Afrikada qo'mondonlik qilishi, Sitsiliyadagi rahbarligi va, albatta, D-Daydagi roli bilan boshlanadi. Al -Alameindagi Afrika Korpusi va Edvin Rommelga qarshi roli uni mashhurlikka olib keldi. Buyuk Britaniyaning g'alabasi uning nomini oldi.
Kitobda uning ishi, siğillari va hammasi tasvirlangan (Eyzenxauerning bosh qo'mondonlik rolidan juda qattiq va norozi). Uning Sitsiliya kampaniyasidagi etakchisiga kerakli darajada batafsil aytilmagan. D-Daygacha bo'lgan uning ishi haqida batafsilroq ma'lumot berilgan.
Kitobda uning etakchiligini tasvirlaydigan yaxshi ish bor-u muvaffaqiyatli va omadsiz (ikkinchisi uning botirlik hujumi, "Market Garden" operatsiyasi bilan ajoyib tarzda tasvirlangan).

Bu ish Montgomerining ishiga adolatli baho berish bilan tugaydi

Bernard Montgomeri - qisqacha tarjimai holida yozish qiyin bo'lgan general, muallif Tim Moreman yaxshi ish qiladi. Bu sarlavhani hamma o'quvchi uning narxi va uzunligini so'rashi mumkin (62 bet). Iste'molchi sifatida men Montgomerining asosiy xulosasini, shu jumladan, keyingi o'qish uchun qayerga borish kerakligi haqidagi so'nggi ma'lumotlarni olishni xohlardim. Bu unvon nafaqat bu rolni bajaradi, balki undan oshib ketadi.

Muallif Moreman, Montgomeri -ning ba'zi kuchli tomonlarini, ayniqsa, tafsilotlarga jiddiy e'tibor qaratganligini ta'kidlaydi, bu 2 -Alameynda hayotiy ahamiyatga ega bo'lgan va, ehtimol, Normandiya qo'nishi paytida ajralmas. Montining ko'rgazmali mahorati, sahro mag'lubiyatidan so'ng, 8 -armiyaga kerak bo'lgan narsa edi, garchi uning buyuk komandirlarga bo'lgan munosabati, ayniqsa Auchinleck (muallif tan olganidek, unga ko'p qarzdor bo'lgan). Montgomerining nutqni tuzuvchi xarizmasi va oddiy askarga qiziqish ko'rsatish qobiliyati 1944 yilda urushdan charchagan Buyuk Britaniya uchun juda yaxshi ish qildi.

Doktor Fortsik o'z sharhida ta'kidlaganidek, muallif, ayniqsa, sitsiliya va italyan kampaniyalarida bo'shliqlarni qoldirgan, lekin menimcha, bu murakkab, hatto qiynoqqa solingan odamning barcha qirralarini etarli darajada yoritib berish uchun zarur bo'lgan qurbonlik edi. Muallif, asosan, Shimoliy Afrikadagi Montgomeri davriga va Normandiya kampaniyasiga e'tibor qaratib, muallif Montgomerining jang maydonlari qo'mondoni sifatida kuchli va zaif tomonlarini etarlicha chuqur ochib bera oladi. Bundan tashqari, Montgomerining shaxsiy hayoti, uning qiyin bolaligi va baxtli, ammo afsuski, qisqartirilgan nikohi haqida o'quvchiga odamning ichini ko'rishga yordam beradigan etarli ma'lumotlar mavjud. Tarixchi munozarali psixo-tarix sohasida muloyimlik bilan yurishi kerak. Bu Tim Moreman, Montgomerining, ba'zida shubhali xatti-harakatining ichki sabablarini ko'rsatib, xavfli, odatda ma'nosiz psixo-mo''jizaviy mantiqqa kirmasdan, qila oladi. Ba'zida o'quvchi Montining takabburligidan va insoniy vaziyatlarga sezgir bo'lmaganidan xafa bo'ladi.

Oxirgi bonus sifatida, rasmlar birinchi darajali. Sarlavhalarning aksariyati matnni yaxshi to'ldiradigan qo'shimcha ma'lumotlarni beradi. Illustrator Grexem Tyornerning rasmlari shaxsiyat va jang maydonidagi vaziyatlarni deyarli hayajonlantiradi. Hozirgi va deyarli oltmish yil oldin sodir bo'lgan urush o'rtasidagi chang masofani kamaytiradigan juda ko'p rangli rangli fotosuratlar mavjud. Umuman olganda, qisqacha tarjimai hol va yoqimli o'qish.


Tarkibi

XXX Korpusi 1941 yil sentyabr oyida general-leytenant Vyvyan Papa boshchiligida G'arbiy cho'lda tashkil etilgan. [1] U G'arbiy cho'l kampaniyasida katta rol o'ynagan, u dastlab Shimoliy Afrikadagi Britaniya zirhli bo'linmalari uchun Salibchilar operatsiyasiga tayyorgarlik ko'rish uchun tashkil etilgan. , inglizlarning Tobruk qamalini yengillashtirishga urinishi. [2]

Bu, asosan, ingliz tanklarining eskirgan taktikasi (ayniqsa, tankga qarshi qurollarni zaryad qilish) tufayli jiddiy talafot ko'rdi, lekin oxir-oqibat Ervin Rommelning Afrika Korpsini Liviyaning markaziy El-Agilasiga chekinishga majbur qildi. 1942 yilning bahorida Rommel qarshi hujum uyushtirdi va inglizlarni Tobrukdan bir necha mil g'arbda joylashgan Gazalaga qaytarib yubordi. Britaniya sakkizinchi armiyasi qo'mondoni Neil Ritchining rejasi XIII korpusni ushlab turishi edi, XXX korpusi Bir -Hachiemning janubidagi pozitsiyadan chiqib ketish harakatlarini to'xtatadi, frantsuzlarning 1 -ozod brigadasi. Ular 1942 yil may oyi oxirida Rommelning zirhlarini sekinlashtirishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi va Rommelning tanklarini "Qozon" ga majburlashdi, bu Britaniya chiziqlarida qolgan bo'shliq, 1942 yil may oyi oxirida 50 -chi (Shimoliyumbriyan) piyoda diviziyasi tarkibidagi 150 -chi piyodalar brigadasini yo'q qilish natijasida. uni maydalash uchun, lekin muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi. Oxir -oqibat, Bir Hachiemdagi erkin frantsuzlar chekinishga majbur bo'lishdi va Rommel qozondan chiqib ketishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. XXX korpusi yangi tashkil etilgan Britaniya X korpusi Mersa Matruhga chekinishga majbur bo'ldi. [3] Nemislar tezda bostirib kirib, X korpusini o'rab olishdi (inglizlar baxtiga, ular chiqib ketishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi) va 1942 yil iyun oyida XXX korpusini El -Alameynga qaytarishdi. [4]

El Alamein tahriri

Bitgan XXX korpusi Nil daryosining g'arbidagi oxirgi mudofaa pozitsiyasi bo'lgan El -Alameynga qaytdi. Bu G'arbiy cho'l kampaniyasidagi yagona joy edi, unda ochiq qanot bo'lmadi (cho'l urushining odatiy qoidasi), chunki Qattara depressiyasining yumshoq erlari, qarama -qarshi kuchlarning janubi va O'rta er dengizi. Shimoliy, qirg'oq sektori XXX korpusiga topshirildi. [4]

Oldingi jiddiy qurbonlar va uskunalarning yo'qolishi tufayli XXX Korpusi Alamaynda boshqa Hamdo'stlik qo'shinlari bo'linmalari (ilgari XIII korpusga biriktirilgan) tomonidan kuchaytirildi: Janubiy Afrika armiyasining 1 -piyoda diviziyasi va Avstraliya armiyasining 9 -piyoda diviziyasi. Korpusning boshqa asosiy bo'linmasi Britaniyaning 23 -zirhli brigadalar guruhi edi. [5]

1942 yil iyulda, El -Alameinning birinchi jangida XXX korpusi yana katta talafot ko'rdi, garchi Axisning yirik hujumi qaytarilgan bo'lsa ham. Uillobi Norini korpus qo'mondoni etib Uilyam Ramsden egalladi. [6]

Avgust oyida, oldingi mag'lubiyatlar va yo'qotishlar natijasida, Bosh vazir Uinston Cherchill Klod Auchinlekni Yaqin Sharq qo'mondonligining bosh qo'mondoni va sakkizinchi armiya qo'mondoni (GOC) lavozimidan ozod qildi. Auchinlek Ittifoqchi qo'mondoni Harold Aleksandr va GOC, Sakkizinchi Armiya Uilyam Gott (ilgari XIII korpus qo'mondoni) bilan almashtirildi. Gott ko'p o'tmay o'ldirildi, uni olib ketayotgan samolyot urib tushirilganda uning o'rniga Bernard Montgomeri keldi. [7]

Avgust oyining oxirida Rommel yana yutuqni qo'lga kiritishga qaror qildi, bu safar chiziqning janubiy uchida Alam al -Xalfa deb nomlangan tizmaga hujum qildi. Bu asosan XIII korpusga qaratilgan bo'lsa, XXX korpusi bir necha yo'nalishdagi reydlarga duch keldi. Sentyabr oyida Ramsdenning o'rnini Oliver Liz egalladi. [8]

XXX korpusi Montgomeryning kodli Lightfoot operatsiyasining birinchi yirik hujumida bo'lishi kerak edi. Yuqorida aytib o'tilgan bo'linmalarga Yangi Zelandiya 2 -diviziyasi (ilgari XIII korpus), Britaniyaning 51 -chi (tog'li) piyoda bo'linmasi va Hindistonning 4 -piyoda diviziyasi, Britaniyaning 9 -zirhli brigadasi qo'shildi. [9]

24 oktyabrga o'tar kechasi, Lightfoot uzoq va kuchli artilleriya bombardimonlari bilan boshlandi, XXX korpusi hujumga o'tdi. Korpus tezda juda katta talafot ko'rdi, lekin Avstraliya, Yangi Zelandiya, Janubiy Afrika va Highland bo'linmalari hujumni davom ettirdilar, minalar maydonlarida bir qancha bo'shliqlar paydo bo'ldilar, Germaniya qarshiligi keyingi harakatlarni to'xtatmaguncha. XXX korpusini kuchga keltirish uchun 50 -chi (shimoliy) piyodalar diviziyasi (XIII korpus) qo'shildi. [10]

2 noyabr kuni erta tongda X korpusi va XXX korpusi Lightfootning Supercharge operatsion kodli to'rtinchi bosqichini ishga tushirdi. 4 -noyabrga kelib X korpusining tanklari yorib o'tildi va ittifoqchilar El -Alameinning ikkinchi jangida g'alaba qozonishdi. [11]

Avstraliyaning 9 -diviziyasi Tinch okeani janubi -g'arbiy teatriga o'tkazildi. 1 -Janubiy Afrika diviziyasi Misrda qoldirildi. El -Alameindan keyin XXX korpusi barqaror oldinga intildi. U 1943 yil fevral oyining oxirida Tunisdagi Maret liniyasida o'z harakatini to'xtatdi. [12]

Tunis tahrirlash

19 -mart kuni XXX korpusi Pugilist operatsiyasi doirasida Maret chizig'iga hujum boshladi, 50 -chi (Northumbriya) va 51 -chi (Highland) piyoda bo'linmalari etakchilik qildi. Ular bo'sh joy yaratishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi, lekin uni tezda Rommelning 15 -panzer diviziyasi egalladi. Davomida Supercharge II operatsiyasi Yangi Zelandiya korpusi va X korpusining 1-zirhli diviziyasidan tashkil topgan general-leytenant Brayan Xorrok boshchiligidagi kuchlar Yangi Zelandiyaliklar tomonidan o'rnatiladigan yon pozitsiyani ishlatdilar. Pugilist 26-27 -tunda nemis qanotlarining mudofaasini sindirib, Germaniyadan chiqib ketgan qo'shinlarni shimolga Vadi Akritga chekinishga majbur qildi. [13]

Aprel o'rtalarida XXX korpusi pozitsiyaga hujum qilishga urinib ko'rdi, ammo Germaniya va Italiyaning qat'iy qarshiligiga qarshi unchalik katta yutuqqa erishmadi. Bu vaqtga kelib, Britaniya Birinchi armiyasi Tunisning markaziy qismidagi germaniya chizig'ini kesib o'tdi va Axis kuchlari taslim bo'lishga majbur bo'lishdi. [14]

1943 yil 10 -iyulda XXX korpusi Italiyaning Sitsiliya oroliga bostirib kirgan. Korpus (general -leytenant Oliver Liz boshchiligida) Britaniya sakkizinchi armiyasining chap qanotini tuzishi kerak edi. U 1 -chi Kanada piyoda diviziyasi, 1 -chi Kanada zirhli brigadasi va Maltadagi 231 -piyoda brigadasi bilan mustahkamlandi. [15]

XXX korpusi Pachino yaqiniga qo'ndi va Italiyaning 206 -chi qirg'oq diviziyasi va Napoli divizioniga qarshi erta g'alaba qozondi. 18 -iyulga kelib, Messinaning yarmi edi. O'shandan keyin taraqqiyot ancha sekinlashdi, chunki Sitsiliyaning tog'li hududi yaxshi jihozlangan himoyachilarga (Shmalts guruhidagi nemis qo'shinlari kabi) yoqdi va ular juda kam harakat qilishdi. Axis qo'shinlarini Sitsiliyadan olib chiqa boshladi va nemislar jasorat bilan chekinishdi. 17 -avgustga kelib, oxirgi nemis qo'shinlari Messina bo'g'ozidan o'tdi va ittifoqchilar Sitsiliyani nazorat qilishdi. Keyin XXX korpusi safdan chiqarildi va Buyuk Britaniyaga "Overlord" operatsiyasiga tayyorgarlik ko'rish va qayta o'qishga yuborildi. [16]

Jangni tahrirlash tartibi

Jang tartibi quyidagicha edi: [17]
General-leytenant Jerar Baknall qo'mondoni (1944 yil 3-avgustgacha)
General-leytenant Brayan Horrocks (1944 yil 4-avgustdan)

  • Korpus qo'shinlari:
      (zirhli mashinalar)
  • 73-tankga qarshi polk, qirollik artilleriyasi [18]
  • 27-yengil zenitlarga qarshi polk, RA [19]
  • 4 (Durham) tadqiqot polki, RA [20] [21] [22]
  • XXX Corps signallari, Royal Signals of Corps
    • [24]
    • 7 -O'rta polk, RA [25] [26] [27] [28] [29]

    Normandiya tahriri

    Hozirda general-leytenant Jerar Baknall qo'mondonlik qilayotgan Normandiya XXX korpusiga yana Gold Beachga qo'ngan 50-diviziya kiradi. Bu tezda 716-chi piyoda diviziyasining nemis himoyachilarini bosib oldi va D-kunining oxirigacha I korpus bilan bog'landi. D-Daydan keyin korpus Perch operatsiyasini boshladi. Bu qattiq qarshilikka duch kelgan sekin yutuqlarga erishdi, lekin 10 -iyungacha Omaha -Bichdan kelayotgan AQSh kuchlari bilan bog'landi. 12 -iyun kuni imkoniyat paydo bo'ldi. Nemislarning Kumon-l-Evente shahri yaqinidagi front chizig'ida bo'sh joy bor edi. 7-chi zirhli bo'linma bo'shliqni ishlatib, Germaniya Panzer-Lehr bo'linmasidan chiqib ketish va ularni chekinishga majbur qilish maqsadida Villers-Bokage tomon yo'l oldi, natijada Villers-Bokage jangi boshlandi. Ushbu hujum Panzer Lehr bo'linmasi va 101 -SS og'ir panzerli batalyon elementlari tomonidan to'xtatildi. Baknall operatsiya va jang paytida qabul qilgan qarorlari uchun qattiq tanqid qilindi. [30]

    XXX Corps was then involved in a battle of attrition with only minor gains being made. Up to 24 July, the front line remained relatively unchanged. The next day however, the Americans launched Operation Cobra, an attack on German positions on the western end of the Contentin Peninsula. They made considerable progress and the British Second Army launched Operation Bluecoat to support the attack and to exploit the momentum. VIII Corps, on the right flank made considerable progress but XXX Corps was sluggish. Annoyed, Montgomery sacked Bucknall and replaced him with Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks, a distinguished veteran of North Africa. After the sacking of Bucknall, the performance of XXX Corps improved considerably and it managed to keep up with the other British Corps during the Battle for the Falaise Gap. After the German collapse, XXX Corps quickly advanced north-east and liberated Brussels and Antwerp in Belgium. There the advance was halted because of a shortage of fuel. Elements of the Guards Armoured Division and the 2nd Household Cavalry Regiment managed to secure a bridge across the Maas-Schelde canal into the Netherlands. This bridge was nicknamed Joe's Bridge in honour of Lieutenant Colonel Joe Vandeleur of the 2nd Battalion, Irish Guards who captured the bridge. [31]

    Operation Market Garden Edit

    After the success in France and Belgium, General Montgomery commanding the 21st Army Group turned his attention to outflanking the Siegfried Line and invading the Ruhr in a pincer movement. The northern part of the pincer would be near Arnhem at the Dutch/German border. Allied troops would concentrate at this point to form the northern part of the pincer. XXX Corps, consisting of approximately 50,000 men, would advance along the main axis of the British Second Army's line of the offensive, and reach Arnhem within 48 hours, and continue on to the Dutch/German border. XXX Corps, the ground operation, was to be the GARDEN part of the operation to project past Arnhem. This required crossing a number of choke points over water obstacles, the last of them a road bridge at Arnhem. When the pincer closed, this would allow ground troops to trap the German 15th Army, splitting it from the 1st Parachute Army on the way around the northern flank of the Siegfried Line. [32]

    The MARKET part of the operation was to seize the bridges up to Arnhem Montgomery requested from General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Supreme Allied Commander on the Western Front, to deploy the First Allied Airborne Army. The U.S. 101st Airborne Division, under Major General Maxwell D. Taylor, was dropped at Eindhoven, to secure the Son and Wilhelmina Canal bridges, the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division, under Brigadier General James M. Gavin, dropped at Nijmegen, to secure the Grave and Nijmegen bridges, while the British 1st Airborne Division, under Major-General Roy Urquhart, dropped at Arnhem, to secure the bridgehead over the Neder Rijn. Attached to the 1st Airborne Division was the Polish 1st Parachute Brigade, under Major General Stanisław Sosabowski. [33]

    Operation Market Garden commenced at 14:00H on Sunday 17 September 1944, with the artillery preparation by 350 guns at 14:35. [34] It was to be the most ambitious ground offensive operation by the British Army in the war so far. However, it was also beset by problems. The ground was assessed to be too soft to accommodate the Sherman tanks of the leading Irish Guards Battle Group, forcing the entire Guards Armoured Division to stay on the single highway. As the XXX Corps advanced north-east, it became obvious that the single highway was prone to traffic jams and was extremely vulnerable to enemy counter-attacks. [35]

    The lead elements of XXX Corps, Major-General Allan Adair's Guards Armoured Division were ambushed by German anti-tank defences, causing delays to the advance while the infantry dealt with the enemy. As a result, they were far short of the 82nd Airborne Division's objectives, having not even reached the 101st Airborne Division by the end of the first day. On the second day of GARDEN, the Guards Armoured Division continued northwards to Eindhoven, where they met elements of the 2nd Battalion, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment of the 101st Airborne Division. They soon discovered that Taylor's 101st had failed to secure the bridge at Son intact, creating more delays before XXX Corps engineers arrived to build a Bailey bridge. [36]

    On the morning of the 19th the Guards Armoured Division advanced without facing much resistance reaching the Nijmegen Bridge on the same day, where they found that the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division had failed to capture the road bridge at Nijmegen with troops only at the southern end of the bridge. XXX Corps brought up boats used by bridge engineers, allowing two companies of Major Julian Cook's 3rd Battalion, 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment to cross the river to assault the bridge from the northern end. XXX Corps captured the Nijmegen bridge running their tanks over. The Guards Armoured Division advanced and quickly established positions on the northern bank to secure the bridge. [37]

    Further south, in the 101st Airborne Division's sector, many units from the XXX Corps had to be detached to fight off repeated attempts by the German 106th Panzerbrigade to cut the highway. The 231st Infantry Brigade (from the 50th Division) and the 4th Armoured Brigade spent most of the time during Operation Market Garden reacting to these probes by German Panther tanks and panzergrenadiers. This created major traffic jams and delayed reinforcements reaching Adair's Guards Armoured Division–particularly the 43rd (Wessex) Infantry Division, under Major-General Ivor Thomas, and the 69th and 151st Brigades of the 50th Division, which further slowed down the XXX Corps advance. [38]

    By 21 September the Guards Armoured Division troops were exhausted, and Horrocks also took ill, with XXX Corps periodically being commanded by its Brigadier General Staff (BGS) Brigadier Harold Pyman, for which he would be made Chief of Staff of Second Army after the operation. They had fought continuously for five days, much of it against fierce German resistance, and were unable to continue the offensive any longer. The 43rd Division was brought up to continue the offensive, who managed to defeat elements of the 10th SS Panzer Division that penetrated to Nijmegen area, and advanced to the Neder Rijn and the area called "the Island". There the 4th Battalion, Dorset Regiment successfully crossed the Rhine as a diversion, so that the remnants of the British 1st Airborne Division could withdraw more safely, but many men of the 4th Dorsets were themselves left behind on the north bank of the Rhine when the division withdrew. [39]

    The failure of Gavin's 82nd Airborne Division to seize the Nijmegen bridge caused a long delay for the XXX Corps to arrive at the Arnhem bridge as planned. This caused the British 1st Airborne Division, which was surrounded at Arnhem and suffered very heavy losses, to retreat from the Arnhem bridge after the delay enabled the Germans to reinforce with armoured divisions. Most of the British 1st Airborne Division either died fighting, surrendered, or withdrew to the Polish 1st Parachute Brigade positions, and effectively ended the offensive [40]

    Ardennes Edit

    During the Battle of the Bulge, units of XXX Corps moved to secure the bridges over the Meuse. [41] On 27 December the Corps pushed the 2nd Panzer Division out of Celles. On 31 December they captured Rochefort at the western end of the salient. [41]

    The Rhineland Campaign Edit

    XXX Corps was heavily involved in the fighting that preceded the Rhine crossings. Under command of the 1st Canadian Army, and with additional divisions, it was responsible for the successful, if difficult, advance through the Reichswald Forest that was the first phase of Operation Veritable in February 1945. The subsequent phases were redesignated as Operation Blockbuster. The terrain now allowed a two corps front, with XXX Corps taking the western side until meeting at Geldern with elements of the 9th US Army on 3 March. [42]


    Bernard Montgomery: No. 9

    A welcome entry in the Osprey "Leadership-Strategy-Conflict" series. Here, we learn more about Bernard Montgomery, a key British leader in World War II. The volume begins by noting that *(Page 4): "Field Marshall Bernard Law Montgomery of Alamein (1887-1978) is probably the best known and arguably the most controversial British general of World War II."

    This work outlines (briefly) his early years and (in a bit more detail) his military career into the early years of the Second World War. The center of the work begins with his assumption of command in northern Africa, his leadership in Sicily, and, of course, his role on D-Day. His role against the Afrika Corps and Edwin Rommel at Al Alamein brought him to renown. The British victory made his name.
    The book outlines his work, warts and all (quite prickly and unhappy with Eisenhower's role as commander in chief). His leadership in the Sicilian campaign is not told in as much detail as would be desirable. More detail is provided for his work leading up to and including D-Day.
    The book does a nice job illustrating his leadership--both successful and unsuccessful (the latter spectacularly illustrated by his botched offensive, Operation Market Garden).

    This work ends with a fair assessment of Montgomery's body of work

    Bernard Montgomery is a particularly difficult general to cover in a short biography, and author Tim Moreman does a nice job. This title is all a reader could ask for its price and length (62 pages). As a consumer, I wanted a basic summary of Montgomery, including some up-to-date background information on where to go for further study. This title not only fulfills that role, it exceeds it.

    Author Moreman points to some of Montgomery's strengths, especially his rigorous attention to detail, that proved vital at 2nd Alamein and perhaps indispensable during the Normandy landings. Monty's showmanship was just what the 8th Army needed after a string of desert defeats, although his treatment of command predecessors, especially Auchinleck (to whom he owed much, as the author admits) was shabby. Montgomery's speech-making charisma, and ability to show interest in the common soldier, did much good for a war-weary Britain in 1944.

    It is true, as Dr. Forczyk mentions in his review, that the author left gaps, especially during the Sicilian and Italian campaigns, but I think this was a necessary sacrifice to give sufficient coverage to all aspects of this complex, even tortured man. By focusing primarily on Montgomery's time in the North Africa and the Normandy campaign, the author is able to give adequate depth into Montgomery's strengths and weaknesses as a battlefield commander. There is also enough background on Montgomery's private life, including his difficult childhood and happy but sadly shortened marriage, to help the reader see inside the man. A historian must tread gently in the controversial field of psycho-history. This Tim Moreman manages to do, hinting at the inner motives for Montgomery's sometimes-dubious behavior, without sliding into the risky, usually pointless morass of psycho-babble. At times it is hard not to sympathize with this troubled, insecure man at other times the reader will wince at Monty's arrogance and lack of sensitivity to human situations.

    As a final bonus, the illustrations are first-class. Most of the captions convey additional information that nicely supplements the text. Illustrator Graham Turner's paintings convey personalities and battlefield situations with an almost haunting poignancy. There are plenty of vivid color photographs that reduce the dusty distance between today and a war that happened nearly sixty years ago. All in all a fine brief biography and a pleasant read.


    The Early Battles of Eighth Army

    The birth and baptism of fire of one of Britain's most illustrious military units Studded with numerous firsthand descriptions from soldiers in the African desert Head to head with Erwin Rommel in Africa, the British Eighth Army enjoyed .

    Muallif: Adrian Stewart

    Nashriyotchi: Stackpole Books

    The birth and baptism of fire of one of Britain's most illustrious military units Studded with numerous firsthand descriptions from soldiers in the African desert Head to head with Erwin Rommel in Africa, the British Eighth Army enjoyed superior numbers and a more effective air force, but despite the valor of its men, it had difficulty turning those advantages into battlefield victory because of command, equipment, and morale problems. After modest success during Operation Crusader in November 1941, the Eighth Army found itself battered and driven back for much of the ensuing year as Rommel scored victory after victory. Not until the fall of 1942 at the Alamein Line did the Eighth Army's fortunes begin to reverse.


    Bernard Montgomery by Tim Moreman (Paperback, 2010)

    Eng arzon narxdagi, yangi, ishlatilmagan, ochilmagan, asl mahsulotidagi asl mahsuloti (qadoqlash mumkin bo'lgan joyda). Qadoqlash chakana savdo do'konida bo'lgani kabi bo'lishi kerak, agar mahsulot qo'lda ishlanmagan bo'lsa yoki ishlab chiqaruvchi chakana bo'lmagan qadoqlarda, masalan, bosilmagan quti yoki plastik to'rva bilan o'ralgan bo'lsa. Qo'shimcha tavsif uchun tafsilotlarni ko'ring.

    Bu narx nimani anglatadi?

    Bu sotuvchi tomonidan taqdim etilgan narx (pochta aloqasi bundan mustasno) yoki unga juda o'xshash narsa sotuvga qo'yilgan yoki yaqinda sotilgan. Narx sotuvchining o'z narxi yoki boshqa sotuvchining narxi bo'lishi mumkin. "O'chirish" miqdori va foizi sotuvchining boshqa joydagi narxi va eBay -dagi sotuvchi o'rtasidagi hisoblangan farqni bildiradi. Agar ma'lum bir ro'yxatda narx va/yoki chegirma bilan bog'liq savollaringiz bo'lsa, iltimos, sotuvchi bilan bog'laning.


    Videoni tomosha qiling: Bernard Montgomery - Monty, El Alamein u0026 Market Garden Documentary