Missisipi shtatidagi qayiqlarda alohida kabinalar bo'lganmi?

Missisipi shtatidagi qayiqlarda alohida kabinalar bo'lganmi?

Agar siz pastki qavat yo'lovchisi bo'lganingizda, o'zingizga kabinaga ega bo'larmidingiz yoki xonadoshingiz bo'ladimi?


Shaxsiy xonalar haqida eshitilmadi. Dan keng tarqalgan iqtibosli xabarga ko'ra Niles haftalik reestri, Vashington, 1815-1816 yillarda qurilgan, "uchta chiroyli xususiy xona" ga ega edi.


Bug'li qayiqlar

Ixtirochilar. Robert Fulton bug 'dvigateli va korpus dizaynining iqtisodiy jihatdan foydali kombinatsiyasini yaratgani uchun munosib obro'ga ega bo'ldi, lekin u, albatta, bug'li qayiqni qurgan birinchi odam emas, hatto birinchi amerikalik ham emas. Ingliz Jonatan Xall 1737 yilda bug'li qayiqni patentladi va amerikaliklar Jeyms Ramsey, Jon Stivens va Jeyms Fitch Fulton ishga tushishidan oldin Amerika daryolarida ishchi qayiqlarni ishlatishdi. Bug'li qayiq (keyinchalik "deb nomlangan Klermon ) 1807 yilda. 1805 yilda Oliver Evans avtomatik un ishlab chiqaruvchi shuhratga ega bo'lib, "Orukter Amfibolos" deb nomlangan bug'li vagonli qayiqning o'z versiyasini ishga tushirdi. O'sha yilning iyul oyida Evans ’ ning g'ildirakli o'n etti tonnalik bug 'dvigateli Filadelfiya markazini aylanib o'tdi va keyin Shuyilkill daryosiga tushib ketdi, u erda uning g'ildiraklari g'ildiraklari egallab olindi va kemani o'n olti chaqirim naridagi dockga surdi. Delaver. Evans keyinchalik muhim yangi paroxod dvigatelini yaratadi, lekin Gultonning Nyu -Yorkdan Olbani va 1807 yil avgustda Gudsonga muvaffaqiyatli ko'tarilishi bug'da sayohat qilishning qulayligini isbotladi. Fulton raqobatchilardan ko'p afzalliklarga ega edi, shu jumladan ilgari suv osti kemasi, marmar kesish mashinasi va bir necha turdagi ko'priklarni ixtiro qilgan texnik mahorat. Ammo Fulton Amerikaning eng boy odamlaridan biri Robert Livingstonni qo'llab -quvvatladi, u nafaqat katta boylikka ega edi, balki Nyu -York shtati qonun chiqaruvchi shtati tomonidan bug 'navigatsiyasida ikkita monopoliyaga ega edi. daryolar va Luiziana shtati tomonidan quyi Missisipi vodiysi uchun berilgan.

Monopol. Fulton ’ ning Gudzondagi muvaffaqiyati bug'da qayiq qurish va sayohatga bo'lgan ishtiyoqni uyg'otdi. Bug'li qayiq, ayniqsa, Ogayo, Missisipi va ularning irmoqlari tomonidan yaratilgan katta daryo tizimi bo'ylab rivojlanayotgan chegara uchun juda mos edi. 1811 yilda, muvaffaqiyatli o'tgandan to'rt yil o'tgach Klermon, Fulton ishga tushirdi Yangi Orlean Pittsburg kemasozlik zavodidan va uni pastga tushgan birinchi muvaffaqiyatli paroxodda o'z nomidagi shaharga yubordi. Ko'p o'tmay, Fulton Nyu -Orlean va Natchez paxta porti o'rtasida muntazam qatnovni amalga oshirdi. Ammo Fulton-Livingston monopoliyasi qisqa umr ko'rdi. Raqobatchilar yo'llarni, kanallarni yoki temir yo'llardan farqli o'laroq, Amerika kemasozlik zavodlari tajriba orttirgandan so'ng, ko'p yillik qimmat qurilishlarni talab qilmaydigan, o'z kemalarini qurishni boshladilar, ular 20 ming dollarlik o'rta o'lchamli kemalarni va hatto eng zo'r modellarni qura olishdi. $ 60 000. Monopol boshqa qayiqlarni daryolardan ushlab tura olmadi, chunki ular umumiy avtomobil yo'llari edi. Hamma uchun iqtisodiy imkoniyatlarning oshishiga bag'ishlangan asrda, Fulton-Livingston monopoliyasi jamoatchilikni ham, boshqa qayiq kompaniyalarini ham reytingga kiritdi. Doimiy ravishda sudlarda hujumga uchragan monopol, nihoyat, Oliy sudning muhim qaroriga tushib qoldi Gibbonlar v. Ogden (1824).

Kuchli shudring. Fulton monopoliyasining tugashi paroxod sanoatining yangi rivojlanish davrini boshlab berdi. 1850 -yillarga kelib, daryo transportida bug 'qayiqlari ustunlik qildi, ayniqsa G'arbda, 1817 yilda atigi 17 ta qayiq bor edi, lekin 1855 yilga kelib 727 ta. Raqamlar, voqeaning yarmini aytadi. G'arbiy daryolar ham qayiq dizaynerlariga qiyinchilik tug'dirdi. Missisipidan tashqari, G'arbiy daryolarning ko'pchiligi sayoz edi va qurg'oqchilik davrida suv sathi bir necha hafta ichida 40 futgacha o'zgarishi mumkin edi. Natijada G'arbiy paroxod uchuvchilari daryolarni doimiy ravishda qayta o'rganishga majbur bo'ldilar va sharqiy kemalarning chuqur loyihasi g'arbga to'g'ri kelmaydi. Bu muammolarga javoban, G'arb quruvchilari Missisipi paroxodini, keng, sayoz va keng ko'lamli sayoz idishni, pastki dvigatelli engil konstruktsiyani o'ylab topdilar. Tarixchi Jorj Rojers Teylorning so'zlariga ko'ra, 1830 -yillarning oxiriga kelib, Ogayo shtatidagi bu yangi qayiqlardan kamida 20 tasi 20 dyuymli suvda suzishi mumkin edi. Zamondoshlar “ og'ir shudringda ishlashi mumkinligini da'vo qilishdi. ”


Missisipi shtatidagi qayiqlarda alohida kabinalar bo'lganmi? - Tarix

Bekki Tetcherning fotosuratlari
Ilgari Missisipi nomi bilan tanilgan



1961-1964 yillar oralig'ida RIVER QRUZANI (sobiq CAPE GIRARDEAU/GORDON C. GREENE) va Str. MISSISSIPPI (o'z ishini 1926 yilda daryoda boshlagan va 1961 yilda ishdan bo'shatilgan 3 -chi muhandislar korpusi) Illinoys sohilidagi Gannibal, Missuri shtatidagi "eski" Mark Tven memorial ko'prigining shimolida yonma -yon bog'langan. .

Bu fotosurat 2 ta faxriy qayiq bir -birining qo'lida bo'lgan vaqtga to'g'ri keladi, RIVER QUIENI 1964 yil iyul oyida Sent -Luisga daryodan tushirilgunga qadar. 1966 yilda MISSISSIPPI ham Sent -Luisga yuborilgan va uning ismi BECKY deb o'zgartirilgan. THATCHER 1965 yilda cho'kib ketgan shunday nomli qayiqdan keyin. 1975 yilda sobiq MISSISSIPPI, hozir BECKY THATCHER deb nomlanadi, Marietta, Ogayo shtati Muskingum daryosiga ko'chib o'tdi va Marietta shtatining Ogayo shouboat drama guruhi bilan teatr faoliyatini boshladi.

2009 yil oktyabr oyida "BECKY THATCHER" ni Pitsburgning tepasidagi Nevill oroliga olib ketishdi, u erda cho'kdi, bu 2010 yil fevral oyida umumiy yo'qotish.

Bu rasm Gannibal Courier Post negativlari arxividan olingan, ular hozir Gannibal ommaviy kutubxonasining Missuri xonasida.

Keyt Norringtonning MISSISSIPPI haqidagi steamboats.org saytidagi xabari, 2006 yil aprel, bu sarlavhani yozish uchun ajoyib manba bo'ldi.
steamboats.org

Memfisdagi MISSISSIPPI rangli slayddan, 1954 yil.

Bu Beki Tetcherning Mariettadagi asosiy kemasi, 90 -yil sentabr. Chapdagi qozonxonaning zinapoyasiga ochiq eshiklari, markazida qopqoq va o'ng tomonda "bitts".

Amerika texnologiyasi va mahoratining tasviriy tarixidan olingan ikki sahifali fotosurat: Amerika hayoti va mahorati, LIFE jurnali muharrirlari, 1957 yil keyin menga bo'lakni mat va ramka qilib berishdi.

Kontent LIFE jurnalining sonlarida ketma -ket joylashtirilgan bo'lishi mumkin, so'ngra tahririyatni takomillashtirish va qo'shimcha rasmli tarkibli kitobga to'plangan.

Bu qayiq 1926 yilda "BECKY THATCHER" deb nomlangan muhandislar korpusi uchun qurilgan MISSISSIPPI bo'lib, u 2010 yil fevral oyida Ogayo daryosidagi Nevill oroli yaqinidagi kanalga cho'kib ketganidan keyin Mariettadan olib ketilgan edi. 1975 yildan beri Muskingum daryosida Showboat, keyinroq restoran va bar bo'lib xizmat qilgan.

MISSISSIPPIni yaxshi holatda bo'lganida va 1961 yilda sotishdan oldin xizmatda bo'lganida, portning to'liq profilida ko'rish juda yoqimli. Bir vaqtlar u Gannibalda, MO "Daryo qirolichasi" yonida bo'lgan. GIRARDEAU va keyinchalik GORDON C. GREENE sifatida). Sent -Luisda bo'lganida MISSISSIPPI "BECKY THATCHER" deb o'zgartirildi va Rut Ferris bortida qayiq muzeyini yaratdi, u erda Keyt Norrington yoshligida tashrif buyurgani haqida yaxshi xotiralarga ega.

TOWBOAT RIVER -dan MISSISSIPPI

MISSISSIPPI BECKY THATCHER bo'lishidan oldin mening eng yaxshi ko'rgan fotosuratlarimdan biri. Edvin va Lois Rosskamning qayiq hayoti haqidagi ajoyib hujjatli kitobi uchun turmush qurgan yozuvchilar va fotosuratchilar tomonidan olingan birinchi darajali rasmlardan biri.

"Qayiq daryosi"
Rosskam, Edvin Rosskam, Luiza
Duell, Sloan va Pirs
Nyu -York, 1948 yil
295 sahifa

Ular hamma va hamma joyni rasm va matn bilan qamrab olishdi. Ofitserlar, muhandislar, oshpazlar va uy bekalari va dekxandlar. Hammasi qora va oq rangda, Depressiya davridagi bunday uslubda, Uolker Evans va boshqalar. Haqiqatan ham kulrang rasmlarni hayotga olib keladigan aniq fokus va ajoyib kontrast.

Rosskamning asl negativlaridan bir nechta izlar bor, ular GEO -dagi texas kabinasida juda past 5 1/2 futli shift ostida joylashgan. M. VERITY, Ayova shtati, Keokuk shahrida.

Bu texas ichida boshimni qirib tashlamaslik uchun men har doim bir oz ovunishim kerak. Bu tez -tez namlik yuqori bo'lgan saunaga o'xshaydi. Teksadagi ramkali rasmlarning ko'pchiligi, shuningdek, asosiy idishni namli mavsumda shisha tagida namlikdan aziyat chekkan.

LIFE jurnalining MISSISSIPPI fotosuratiga hamroh. Bu fotosuratni, ehtimol, o'sha fotograf boshqasidan ko'p o'tmay olgan.

GRANDS FLEUVES (Buyuk daryolar) uchun chang ko'ylagi, Jozef Job va eacute, & Eacuteditions Mondo, 1968 y.

MISSISSIPPIning boshqa nozik rangli fotosurati ilova qilingan. Bu Tennessi shtatining Memfis kutubxonasi arxividan.

Bu rasmni "afishalash" unga "ipak ekranli" ko'rinish berdi. Bu National Geographic nashrining MISSISSIPPI muhandislar korpusiga tegishli. MISSISSIPPI birinchi bo'lib Sent -Luisdagi Laclede qo'nish joyida BECKY THATCHER nomi bilan nafaqaga chiqqan, keyin ko'p yillar davomida Ogayo shtatining Marietta shahridagi Muskingumda bog'langan. Keyt Norringtonning sevimli qayiqqa bag'ishlangan maqolasini ushbu havolada topishingiz mumkin: steamboatmuseum.org

"Bekki Tetcher" ning VALLEY GEM ekskursiya kemasidan, Marietta daryosi bo'yida, Deyv Tomson, 1990 yil sentyabr. Qutidagi kemada bizni "vodiy to'lqini" qilayotgan Keyt Norringtonni ko'rish mumkin. GEM. Photoshop -da men qayiqning port tomondan konditsioner kanalini olib tashladim va qayiqning nomini MISSISSIPPI deb o'zgartirdim.

Quyida Keyt Norintonning Govard muzeyidagi Bekki hayoti haqidagi aniq tarixiga havola bor. steamboatmuseum.org
Becki uchun rekvizem
Kit Norrington tomonidan
Kurator, Xovard paroxod muzeyi

OHIO, Marietta dagi Muskingum daryosidagi BECKY THATCHERdan Bryus Rea surati.
Chiroyli kunda ideal vaqt, juda aniq va aniq yuqori aniqlikdagi tasvir. Perfecta-mundo.

Deyv Tomsonning MISSISSIPPI deb nomlangan uchinchi muhandislar kemasida kapitan Devid M. Kukning rangli fotosurati.

BECKY THATCHER (sobiq MISSISSIPPI) uchuvchilar uyi

1975 yil mualliflik huquqi Allen Xess tomonidan janob Xess tomonidan saqlangan, u Marietta shahrida BECKY THATCHER (sobiq MISSISSIPPI) uchuvchilar uyi oldidan olgan.

1972 yil oktyabr oyida Missisipi daryosining Sent -Luis shahridagi BECKY THATCHER g'ildiragining 35 mm rangli slaydining tafsiloti.


Bug 'qayig'ida chang'i sporti tarixi

Kayaklar (dastlabki yillarda qor poyabzali deb atalgan) 1914 yilda Karl Xovelsen kelguncha va shahar aholisining hayotini o'zgartirguncha sayohat vositasi bo'lgan. Xovelsen chang'ida sakrashni joriy qildi va dam olish sanoatini ishga tushirdi. Har yili o'tkaziladigan qishki karnaval shu yili tashkil etilgan. Oxir -oqibat Xovelsen Xill Barnum va Beyli sirk yulduzi bo'lgan mashhur "uchuvchi chavandoz" sharafiga nomlandi.

Yampa vodiysida bug'doy va pichan ishlab chiqarish, ko'mir qazib olish bilan bir qatorda qoramol va qo'y chorvachiligi asosiy sanoat sifatida saqlanib qolgan. 20 -asrning 20 -yillariga qadar chorvachilik bu sohadagi eng yirik yakka sanoat edi. 1912 yilda qulupnay butun mamlakat bo'ylab Qulupnay bog'i deb nomlanuvchi shahar markazining shimolida sotilgan.

1950 -yillarga kelib chang'ining mashhurligi shaharning janubidagi yana bir chang'i zonasini rivojlanishiga turtki bo'ldi. Bo'ron tog'i 1961 yilda ochilgan jahon darajasidagi chang'i maydoniga aylantirildi. Tog 'chang'i zonasi 1964 yilda mahalliy olimpiya chang'isi Buddy Verner vafotidan keyin Verner tog'i deb o'zgartirildi.

Steamboat Springs Kolorado shtatining shimoli -g'arbiy qismidagi madaniy markaz bo'lib, 1914 yildan Strawberry Parkda Perry Mansfield lageri tashkil etilgan. Tarixiy lager o'zining 85 -yilida, mamlakatning eng qadimgi sahna san'ati markazi sifatida davom etib, "Steamboat Springs Arts Council", "Jamoatchilar va tog'lardagi torlar" kabi madaniy tadbirlar va tashkilotlar uchun turtki bo'ldi.

Steamboat Springs-ning tarixiy binolari va joyi cho'lda o'zini o'zi ta'minlaydigan chekka qishloq va sigir shaharchasidan dehqonchilik-dehqonchilik bilan shug'ullanadigan jamiyatga, ta'lim va madaniy imkoniyatlar manbai, chang'ida sakrash va dam olish markazi va kurort shaharchasi evolyutsiyasini kuzatadi. .


Delta malikasi

1946 yil 17 -dekabr: Kapitan Tom Grin va uning oilasi Qo'shma Shtatlar Dengiz Komissiyasidan DELTA QUEEN (YFB 56) kema uchun taklifi qabul qilinganligi to'g'risida rasmiy xabarnoma oldilar. Shu tariqa uning hayotidagi eng katta sarguzasht boshlandi. (R.Deyl Flik e'tiborimizga havola etdi)

Delta malikasida sayohat qilgan mashhurlar

Delta malikasining eng mashhur sayohati Jimmi Karter va uning oilasining 1976 yildagi "8220 prezidentlik sayohati" bo'ldi. Ammo Delta malikasini sayohat qilgan boshqa mashhurlar ham bor edi. Steamboats.org xabarlar taxtasidan ba'zi xotiralar.

2003 yil 16 yanvar, Jeyn Grin: “Delta qirolichasidagi mashhurlarning hammasi ham prezident bo'lmagan. Uilyam Karlos Uilyams haqida eshitganmisiz? Menda ... faqat kollej darajalarim ingliz tilida bo'lgani uchun va singillarim ham shunday edilarki, o'sha paytda Uilyam Karlos Uilyams Delta qirolichasida, Meri esa ijtimoiy direktor edi. U amerikalik mashhur shoir, Pullitser mukofoti sovrindori biz bilan sayohat qilganidan juda xursand bo'ldi. Haqiqatan ham bolalar shifokori bo'lgan bu shoir haqida hamma ham eshitmagan. Maryam bir kechada yo'lovchilar uchun o'zining mashhur she'rlarini o'qishni afzal ko'rdi. Men safarda emas edim, lekin keyinroq opam bilan gaplashganimda, doktor Uilyams yo'lovchilarga o'z she'rlarini o'qigach, kech qanday o'tdi, deb so'radim. Ular chamadonini ular uchun ochishdi va ular xokey pokeyini bajarish uchun vaqtlarini sanashdi, men uni hech kim qazmaganidan hafsalam pir bo'ldi va cho'chqa oldida marvarid quyayotganini aytdi. Men mashhur Virjil Fos Cave-in-Rokdagi kalliopada mumtoz musiqa chalayotgan odamlarga, shubhasiz, tayoqchalarni eshitishni yoqtirganda, men ham shunday o'yladim. Ammo, men 60 yoshga to'lganimda, mening qarashlarim butunlay o'zgardi va biz hammamiz cho'chqamiz va biz hamma marvarid g'ildiraklarimiz. Har kimning tajribasi borki, boshqa odam buni bilmaydi va bu uchun bizning bilimimiz va minnatdorchiligimiz bilan baham ko'rmaydigan odamlarga qaramaslikdan ko'ra, men bilmayman va men shuni bilardimki, faqat muhim narsa bu tan olishdir. o'z -o'zini hurmat qilish. Men bilamanki, men Uilyam Karlos Uilyamsning she'riyatini qadrlayman va bu muhim. Bularning barchasi, shubhasiz, baland tuyuladi, lekin xulosa shuki, siz qilayotgan ohanglarga barmoqlarini tegmaydigan odamlarni qoralamang. Ular sizdan ko'ra ko'proq narsani bilishi mumkin. Falsafiy jihatdan sizniki, Jeyn ”

2003 yil 16 yanvar, Jeyn Grin: “Onam unga [Jimmi Karterga] safaridan qaytganidan keyin "Yashasin Delta malikasi" kitobini yubordi. U unga uzoq kutilgan minnatdorchilik xati yozdi va u kutmagan edi. Keyin, u bir necha bor turli xil narsalar bilan kasalxonaga yotqizilganida, u shifoxonaga yaxshi kartalarini yubordi! Hamshira va uning kartalarini Presdan ko'rib hayron qolishdi. Karter oldingi muhr bilan u erda ko'plab boshqalar orasida o'tirgan. Menimcha, bu unga juda yoqadi. O'shanda ko'p odamlar Letha Grinni unutgan edilar, lekin bu eski Jimmi uni esladi. Bundan tashqari, biroz xotirjamlik kiritish uchun, onam o'z kitobiga imzo chekayotganida, u mendan u erda nima deyishim kerakligini so'radi. Men aytdimki, ular yillar oldin ota -onam yashaydigan 338 -xonada qolishgan, shuning uchun men aytdimki, siz mening xonamda uxlab yotgan yagona Prezidentga eng yaxshi tilaklaringizni aytishingiz kerak! ” yig'ladi, lekin tiyildi. Bundan tashqari, onam uning kasalxonada ekanligini qanday bilganini hech qachon tushunmagan? ”

2003 yil 17 yanvar, Ted Guillaum: Bug 'kemasi ro'yxatiga qo'shiladigan yana bir mashhur ism - Olivia de Xaveland. Bir yili kompaniya Delta malikasi uchun “Movie Cruise ” va MQ uchun “Big Band ” sayohatlarini rejalashtirgan. Bu mavsumning boshida edi va DQda bron qilish kam edi (ayniqsa, kompaniya ko'pchilik odamlarni MQ -ga yo'naltirishga harakat qilgandi), shuning uchun ular DQni bekor qilishdi va ikkala kruizni ham MQ -ga birlashtirishdi. Yo'lovchilar uchun bu qanday savdogarlik! Men va kruiz rejissyori Terri Severns kabi DQ guruhining ba'zi a'zolari kino odamlarini qabul qilishda yordam berish uchun MQ -ga joylashtirildi. Terri va men de Xaveland xonimga mezbonlik qilish majburiyatlarini bo'ldik, u eng mashhur yulduzlar kabi eng mehribon xonim edi. Bu menga zavq bag'ishladi va men hatto ish haqini ham oldim. De Xaveland xonim yolg'iz sayohat qilar edi va u bizdan birining omma oldida chiqishini xohlardi. U "Shamol bilan ketdi" va#8221 filmlarining yagona tirik bosh qahramoni edi va, albatta, biz filmni namoyish qildik. Endi ismning qisqarishi haqida. Men “GWTW ” ni tomosha qilib, u bilan popkorn almashish paytida Oliviya de Xaveland yonida o'tirishim kerak edi. Yo'lovchilar uni yaxshi ko'rishardi. ”


Paddle-Wheeler yana dumaladi

Natijada kanalni qaytarib olayotganimizda, biz statsionar barjaga cho'kdik. Qayiq yonbag'iridagi bir nechta molekula bo'yoqlari to'qnashuvda yo'qolgan bo'lishi mumkin, zanglagan chalkashlik, faqat aloqa orqali yaxshilanishi mumkin edi. Ammo dengiz qoidalari qanday bo'lsa, hisobot berish uchun qirg'oq qo'riqchilarini chaqirish kerak edi.

Qirqish joyiga qarash uchun kemada yig'ilgan yo'lovchilar orasida, bu qandaydir tarzda kechki ovqatga xalaqit berishi mumkinligi haqida katta xavotir bor edi, chunki bu lobster dumining kechasi edi. Ammo ovqat xonasi belgilangan vaqtda ochildi va taxminan bir vaqtning o'zida Sohil qo'riqlash kemasi biz bilan birga to'xtadi.

Ko'rib turganimdek, bortga kelgan ofitserlarning hech biri qayiq va barja bir -biriga bog'langan joyni tekshirmagan. Biroq, ular qisqichbaqaning orqa uchini iste'mol qilish uchun kerak bo'lguncha ko'zdan g'oyib bo'lishdi. Men shunchaki aytaman.

Qaytish, ekskursiyalar va kabinalar

Okeangoingda kulgili arzon ta'tillar ("179 dollardan sayohatlar!") Haqidagi reklamalarni ko'rishga odatlanganlarni Amerika qirolichasi (888-749-5280 greatamericansteamboatcompany.com) narxlari ro'yxati hayron qoldirishi mumkin. Bug'da qayiq qilish arzon emas.

Nyu-Orleandan Memfisgacha bo'lgan to'qqiz kunlik kruiz narxi shu oyning oxirida ikki kishilik salonda 1995 kishidan boshlanadi va daryo manzarali kvartirada 5795 dollardan boshlanadi. Qayiq haqiqatan ham yolg'iz sayohatchilar uchun mo'ljallanmagan, biroq bir nechta ichki kabinalar mavjud. Menniki oddiy shkafning kattaligi edi va kir yuvish xonasining qarshisida edi, u ertalab soat 2 da shovqinli shoshilinch ta'mirlashga muhtoj edi. Narxlar Memfis kruizida yakka sayohat qilishni taqiqlaydi, bitta kabinaning narxi 2,995 dollarni tashkil qiladi.

Sizning chiptangiz barcha ovqatlarni sotib oladi (va kechki ovqatda, sharobda), shuningdek, katta salonda, tungi namoyishlar va kunduzi, Regina Charboneau kabi, ma'ruzali ma'ruzalar, qayiqda. oshpazlik direktori, pechene tayyorlashni berdi. ("Mening pechene kaliti haddan tashqari aralashmasin.")

Eng yaxshi o'yin -kulgilarning biri bu bug'li qayiq nima qilayotganini shunchaki tomosha qilishdir. Dvigatel xonasi deyarli har qanday vaqtda sayohatlar uchun ochiq. Oldinda past ko'prik turganida, qayiqning tutun tutunlari qanday yig'ilib ketayotganini kuzatishning ulug'vorligi bor. Bunday kattalikdagi qayiqni sakkiz fut balandlikdagi qumli qirg'oqqa tortayotganini ko'rish ajablanarli, shuning uchun chuqur suv kerak emas.

Har bir to'xtash joyida, kruiz liniyasi mehmonlarni yaqin atrofdagi shaharlarga yoki diqqatga sazovor joylarga olib borish uchun bepul o'tish-tushish avtobusini o'rnatadi, ularning ba'zilari yo'lovchilarga qayiqdan bepul kirishni ta'minlaydi. Ammo qo'shimcha haq evaziga-49 dollar odatdagidek-ko'proq sarguzashtli sayohatchilar alligator bilan to'lgan botqoq bo'ylab sayohat qilish va Angoladagi Luiziana shtati qamoqxonasiga tashrifni o'z ichiga olgan turli xil "yuqori darajali sayohatlar" ni o'tkazishi mumkin edi. hozir o'zini namunali jazo muassasasi sifatida targ'ib qilmoqda).

Amerika qirolichasi yil oxirigacha Missisipi shtatining Yuqori va Quyi, Ogayo va Tennessi shtatlarida kruizlarni rejalashtirgan. Ko'pchilikning mavzulari bor: "1960-yillar musiqasi", "Epik fuqarolar urushi", "Eski uslubdagi bayramlar". Ular uch kechadan 10gacha.


Missisipi shtatidagi qayiqlarda alohida kabinalar bo'lganmi? - Tarix

To'plamdan olingan grafikalar bilan
Deyv Tomson

Samuel Klemens Missuri shtatining Gannibal shahri yaqinida, qayiqda daryo uchuvchisi bo'lishni xohlagan yoshligida o'sgan. U yozgan:

Bolaligimda, Missisipi daryosining g'arbiy qirg'og'idagi qishlog'imizdagi o'rtoqlarim orasida faqat bitta doimiy ambitsiya bor edi. Bu paroxodchi bo'lish edi. Bizda boshqa turdagi o'tkinchi ambitsiyalar bor edi, lekin ular faqat o'tkinchi edi. Sirk kelib -ketganda, bizni masxarabozga aylantirish yoqdi, bizning bo'limimizga kelgan birinchi negr minstrel namoyishi bizni azob -uqubatlarga duchor qildi, biz hozir shunday hayotni sinab ko'rdik, keyin umid qilamizki, agar biz yashasak va yaxshi bo'lsak, Xudo bizga qaroqchi bo'lishga ruxsat beradi. Bu ambitsiyalar yo'qoldi, har biri o'z navbatida, lekin qayiqchi bo'lish ishtiyoqi doimo saqlanib qoldi.
- Missisipida hayot

1857-1861 yillar mobaynida Klemens o'z orzusini amalga oshirdi-bu orzu Shimoliy va Janub o'rtasidagi fuqarolar urushi bilan yakunlandi. Bu xususiyatda tasvirlangan bug 'qayiqlarida Klemensning bolakay uchuvchi va litsenziyali uchuvchi sifatida xizmat qilgan sanalari Klemensning maktublari, daftarlari, esdaliklari va boshqa tarixiy hujjatlardan voqealarni eng yaxshi qayta qurishga asoslangan. Vaqt o'tishi bilan, Klemensning Missisipi daryosi bo'ylab harakatlarini aniqlash va aniqlashtirish uchun tarixiy yozuvlardan qo'shimcha dalillar paydo bo'lishi mumkin.

1882 yilda Klemens Missisipi daryosiga qaytib, nomli kitob haqidagi fikrlarini yig'di Missisipida hayot. 1895 yilda butun dunyo bo'ylab gastrol paytida Klemens Avstraliyada kamida bitta nutq so'zlab, 1882 yildagi sayohatini esladi. (Bu saytda mavjud bo'lgan Yorik klubi nutqi matniga qarang.)

1902 yil iyun oyida u Kolumbiyadagi Missuri universitetining faxriy unvonini olganida va uning sharafiga nomlangan paroxodni bag'ishlashda daryoga oxirgi tashrifini amalga oshirdi. 1902 yil sentyabr oyida u nashrga intervyu berdi Nyu -York dunyosi va bug'li qayiqda birinchi safarini esladi.

Mark Tvenning birinchi & quot; Dam olish & quot;
dagi intervyudan Nyu -York dunyosi, 1902 yil 7 sentyabr

"Bilasizmi, Missisipi qirg'og'ida o'g'il bo'lish, bug 'qayiqlari daryoning yuqoriga va pastga tushishini ko'rish, va hech qachon unga minmagan. Bu nimani anglatishini tasavvur qila olasizmi? Menimcha, yo'q.

"Xo'sh, men etti yoshda edim, kechasi tushim va kunduzgi orzuim hech qachon amalga oshmagan edi. Lekin menimcha, bu amalga oshdi. Bu mening birinchi ta'tilim edi." Bir pauza.

"Bir kuni Gannibalda to'xtab turadigan katta paket mening shahrimdagi bortga chiqqanda, bolakayning kichkina qismi kemaning tepasida o'tirganini ko'rish mumkin edi, u yawl ostida ko'zdan g'oyib bo'ldi. Men bir yigitning kichik qismi edim.

"Ular buni hayotiy qayiq deb atashdi,-dedi janob Klemens,-lekin bu hech kimni qutqara olmaydigan qutqaruv kemalaridan biri edi. Xo'sh, paket yaxshi boshlandi va bu menga katta zavq bag'ishladi. Haqiqiy bug'li qayiqda bo'lishdan xursandman, lekin shu payt yomg'ir yog'a boshladi, endi Missisipi shtatida yomg'ir yog'di, men boshlaganimdan keyin men uning ostidan sudralib chiqdim va tez harakatdan zavqlanardim. Yomg'ir meni yopishga majbur qildi va bu yawl ostida edi. Qizig'i shundaki, katta shoxobchalardan qizil-qizil shitirlab pastga tushib, oyoqlarim va oyoqlarimga qattiq kuch bilan urib yubordi, va agar bu men turgan paroxod bo'lmaganida edi. Kechki ovqat paytida uyda xavfsiz bo'lishni xohlardim, lekin odatda kechgacha, yomg'ir va bo'ron davom etdi, o'n etti mil. past Gannibal, meni ekipajlardan biri topdi. " Juda qasddan qilingan pauza.

"Ular meni Luiziana qirg'og'iga olib ketishdi." Yana bir pauza.

"Meni otamning do'stlari uyga yuborishdi. Otam meni qaytganimda kutib olishdi". Po'lat-ko'k ko'zlarida miltillash. "Men buni aniq eslayman."

So'ngra: "Onam odatda uy vazifalarini bajarardi, lekin o'sha paytda otam butun mas'uliyatni o'z zimmasiga oldi". Eslatib o'taman: "Bu mening birinchi ta'tilim va uning oxiri edi"-u sigarasini tishladi, "men ikkalasini ham eslayman.

2003 yil 4 -iyulda Missuri shtatining Gannibal shahri Samuel Klemensga Missisipi paroxod uchuvchisi sifatida o'z karerasini hurmat qilgan yangi haykalni bag'ishladi. Haykal Fred Shvartsning sovg'asi edi va Mark Tven olimi Deyv Tomsonning dizayn tavsiyalariga asoslangan edi. Haykalning bag'ishlanish marosimi mahalliy Gannibalda keng yoritilgan Kuryer pochtasi . Ikkinchi yangiliklar 2003 yil 29 iyulda paydo bo'ldi Kuryer pochtasi.


Missisipi ko'prigi

Devid A. Pfayfer tomonidan

Rok orolidagi birinchi ko'prikning quyi oqim balandligi. (Uilyam Rib, "Hukumat ko'prigi") Rok -Aylend дайjesti)

1856 yil 22 -aprelda Ayova shtatining Rok -Aylend, Illinoys va Deyvenport shaharlari fuqarolari uchta bug 'lokomotivi sakkizta yo'lovchi vagonini Missisipi daryosi bo'ylab qurib bitkazilgan Chikago va Rok -Aylend temir yo'l ko'prigi bo'ylab xavfsiz tarzda olib ketayotganini ko'rib, xursand bo'lishdi. Missisipi bo'ylab birinchi temir yo'l ko'prigi biznes uchun ochiq edi. Endi Ayova shtatining sharqiy aholisi Nyu-York shahriga temir yo'l bilan qirq ikki soatdan ko'p bo'lmagan vaqt ichida yetib bora olardi.

Ushbu ko'prikning qurilishi va qurilishi qit'alararo tijorat va bo'lim manfaatlariga taalluqli bo'lgan katta muammolarni ramziy qilib ko'rsatdi. Mamlakat bo'ylab temir yo'lni qo'llab -quvvatlovchilar shimoliy yo'lni afzal ko'rganlar va janubiy yo'lni yoqlaganlar o'rtasida bo'linishdi. Ko'prik, shuningdek, temir yo'llarga bug 'qayiqlarini qo'ydi va bu kelishmovchiliklar federal sudlarda hal qilindi.

Ko'prik atrofidagi munozarada ikkita taniqli o'yinchi, keyinchalik katta sahnada uchrashadigan erkaklar edi: Avraam Linkoln va Jefferson Devis. Linkoln ko'prik kompaniyasining advokati bo'lgan, bug 'kemasi manfaatlari bilan bog'liq sud ishlarida. Devis, urush kotibi sifatida, qit'alararo temir yo'l uchun shimoliy va janubiy yo'nalishlar o'rtasidagi tanlovda faol ishtirok etdi.

Rok -Aylend ko'prigi 1854 yilda Chikagodan endigina Rok oroliga etib kelgan Chikago va Rok -Aylend temir yo'lini va Davenportdan G'arbiy chekkasidagi Kengash Bluffsiga qarab qurilgan Ayovadagi Missisipi va Missuri temir yo'llarini birlashtirish maqsadida qurilgan. 1853 yildagi shtat. Loyiha tarafdorlari Nyu -York shtati, Missisipi vodiysi va Uzoq G'arbiy shahar o'rtasida to'g'ridan -to'g'ri temir yo'l aloqasini ta'minlaganligi sababli, Rok orolini ko'prik uchun ideal joy deb atashdi. Loyiha muhandislari, leytenant Robert E. Li tomonidan o'tkazilgan 1837 yildagi topografik tadqiqot va boshqa tadqiqotlarga asoslanib, saytni ideal deb topdilar.

Illinoys va Ayova shtati o'rtasidagi chegara Missisipi daryosining asosiy kanalining markazida bo'lgani uchun va ikkala temir yo'l ustavlari ham qonuniy kelib chiqishi va terminal nuqtalari bo'yicha farq qilgani uchun, ikkita temir yo'lni birlashtirish uchun maxsus qonun va yangi nizom zarur edi. Muammo 1853 yildagi Illinoys qonun chiqaruvchi organining "Missisipi daryosi ustidan temir yo'l ko'prigi qurish, saqlash va undan foydalanish ..." ga ega bo'lgan "Temir yo'l ko'prigi" kompaniyasini o'z ichiga olgan akti bilan hal qilindi. Bu daryoning erkin navigatsiyasi bilan. " Bu shart kelgusida sud jarayonining hal qiluvchi nuqtasiga aylanadi.

Ko'prik qurilishi 1853 yil 16 iyulda boshlangan va uch yil davom etgan. Qurilish uch qismdan iborat edi - Illinoys sohili va orol o'rtasidagi daryoning tor qismi bo'ylab ko'prik, Rok oroli bo'ylab yo'llar chizig'i va orol va Ayova qirg'og'i orasidagi uzun ko'prik.

Uzoq ko'prik dizayni navigatsiya uchun minimal xavf tug'dirishi kerak edi. Ko'prikning umumiy tuzilishi 1,581 fut uzunlikda bo'lib, oltita oraliqdan iborat edi. Bir yo'lakli ko'prik, odatiy bug'li qayiq kanaliga to'g'ridan-to'g'ri qo'yiladigan burilish chizig'ini o'z ichiga olgan, Illinoys shtatida ikkita va Ayova shtatida uchta sobit. Tortish kengligi 32 fut bo'lgan ulkan markaziy iskala ustida aylantirildi va diametri yigirma sakkiz futli yo'lakda yigirma g'ildirakli aylanuvchi podshipnik bilan mustahkamlandi. Ko'prikka tom yopish haqida o'ylardi, lekin lokomotivlarning uchqunlari uni yoqib yuborishi mumkinligidan qo'rqib, bu fikr rad etildi.

Hamma ham ko'prik qurilishidan mamnun emasdi. Daryo qayiqlari egalari navigatsiyaga to'sqinlik qiladigan har qanday ko'prikka qarshi edilar. Bu qarama -qarshilik temir yo'llar va boshqalarning navigatsiya oqimlarini ko'prik qilish huquqlarini har doim hal qilgan muvaffaqiyatli sinov ishining markaziga aylandi.

Ko'prikka dastlabki qarshilik

1850-yillar davomida Missisipi vodiysida shimoldan janubga transportni yoqtirganlar bilan sharqdan g'arbga qit'a bo'ylab sayohat qilishni yoqlaganlar o'rtasida kurash olib borildi. Bu eski migratsiya yo'nalishlari bilan janub va sharq o'rtasidagi yangi va sekin, arzon suv va tez, lekin qimmatroq temir yo'l transporti o'rtasidagi raqobat edi. Sent -Luis va Chikagoni bir -biriga qarama -qarshilik qilib qo'ydi. Sent -Luis shahri aholisi va boshqa daryo manfaatlari qayiqlarda erkin sayohat qilish tamoyilini qo'llab -quvvatladilar, Chikago fuqarolari va temir yo'l manfaatlari temir yo'l kompaniyalarining ko'prik qurish huquqiga ega edi.

Bu daryo manfaatlari mag'lubiyatli o'yin ko'rsatgan kurash edi. Bug'li qayiq faqat suv tizimlariga ergashishi mumkin edi, temir yo'l kompaniyalari o'z relslarini deyarli hamma joyga qo'yishlari mumkin edi. Missisipi paroxodlari bo'ylab qurilgan Rok -Aylend temir yo'l ko'prigining qurilishi inqirozni boshdan kechirdi. Boshqa temir yo'llar Missisipi bo'ylab ko'priklar qurishni rejalashtirishdan oldin nizo natijasini kutishgan.

Hatto hukumat ham ko'prik qurilishiga qarshi chiqdi. 1853 yilda, o'sha paytdagi prezident Franklin Pirsning urush kotibi, Missisipi shtatidan Jefferson Devis Uzoq G'arbni janub bilan bog'lash vositasi sifatida janubiy yo'nalishdagi qit'alararo temir yo'lga qiziqishini e'lon qildi. O'sha yili Rok -Aylend Chikagodan Rok -Aylendgacha uzaytirildi va Missisipi va Missuri temir yo'llari Ayova shtatining Davenport shahrida uzildi. Rok -Aylend ko'prigi kompaniyasi 1853 yilning kuzida tashkil etilgan va ko'prik ustida ish boshlangan. Janubliklar shimoliy ko'prikka qarshilik ko'rsatgan, chunki bu shimolga g'arbni ko'proq joylashtirishga imkon beradi. Devis hozircha hech qanday e'tiroz bildirmadi, chunki u janubiy marshrutning rivojlanishi ishonchli ko'rinishini sezdi. In the spring of 1854, however, as the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act heated up sectional rivalries, Davis realized that his southern transcontinental railroad might be delayed. His interest in the Rock Island site grew.

As secretary of war, Davis had a direct interest in Rock Island. Until 1845, the army had maintained Fort Armstrong there. Even after the fort was closed, succeeding secretaries of war claimed jurisdiction over the island. The Rock Island Bridge Company therefore applied to Davis for a grant of land for a railway across the Mississippi River. Davis pondered his reply for several months while construction began on the bridge. Finally, on April 19, 1854, Davis reasserted the War Department's jurisdiction and declared that he opposed the company's use of the island. According to contemporary newspaper accounts, Davis did not want to permit a northern railroad route to get a head start over a southern railroad route, thereby allowing the north to take the lead in settling Nebraska and Kansas. In a letter to the contractors, John Warner and Company, he ordered construction on the bridge halted. The order was ignored.

On July 17 the U.S. marshal for the District of Illinois arrived at Rock Island to enforce Davis's order. By then the land had already been graded, and for some unknown reason, the marshal did not evict the bridge construction workers. Opponents of the bridge were forced to seek other means of halting construction.

Davis's next move was to apply for an injunction in federal court to restrain the Bridge Company from further construction. Judge John MacLean heard the case, the Qo'shma Shtatlar v. The Railroad Bridge Company, during the July 1855 term of the U.S. Circuit Court for Northern Illinois. Judge MacLean ruled that because Rock Island had been abandoned by the War Department, it could not be considered a military preserve. Therefore, Rock Island became public land and could be used for other purposes. The judge added that the bridge would be an improvement in the interest of the general public. Such use of public lands promoted population growth and increased land values. He maintained that "a State has the power to construct a public road through public lands." Finally, the judge concluded that "the State of Illinois has an undoubted right to authorize the construction of a bridge, provided that the same does not materially obstruct the free navigation of the river." He further stated that there would be little or no delay or hazard to steamboats resulting from passing the drawbridge. Jefferson Davis's efforts to halt construction of the bridge were effectively stopped.

The fight, however, was not over. On the morning of April 21, 1856, the bridge was completed, and the first trains rolled across it. Again, speeches were made and bands played. The Father of Waters had been crossed. Then disaster struck.


This drawing shows the locations of the various Rock Island bridges over the years. (William Riebe, "The Government Bridge," The Rock Island Digest)

A Collision Brings the Bridge to Court

Just fifteen days after the celebration of the completion of the bridge, part of the bridge was wrecked and burned as a result of a steamboat collision. This incident set the stage for act two of the court battle that helped to settle the issue of whether railroads could cross navigable streams. This incident also brought into the public eye an Illinois attorney by the name of Abraham Lincoln.

The story goes like this. As darkness fell on the evening of May 6, the steamer Effie Afton moved slowly upriver toward the newly completed bridge. The vessel blew her whistle signaling that she was moving through the draw. The draw slowly opened and the steamboat moved through. Some two hundred feet after the Effie Afton cleared the draw, she heeled hard to the right. Her starboard engine stopped, the port power seemingly increased. She struck the span next to the opened draw. The impact caused a great deal of damage to both the bridge and the boat. Then a stove in one of the cabins was knocked over and its fire spread rapidly to the deck and then to the bridge timbers. The vessel burned to cinders within five minutes. One span was completely destroyed, and there was some pier damage as well as minor damage to the rest of the bridge. By the following day, the rest of the bridge caught fire and was completely destroyed. Steamboats up and down the river celebrated, blowing whistles and ringing bells.

The Effie Acton was new, well equipped, and worth about fifty thousand dollars. The accident occurred on her first trip above St. Louis. Her usual run was on the Ohio River and on the Mississippi between Louisville and New Orleans. According to the local newspapers, there was no evident reason for her appearance this far north on the river at night. In addition, there was at the time, apparently, no public record of who or what the boat carried or her destination. People in the Davenport-Rock Island area who favored the railroad were sure that the Effie Afton was loaded with something flammable and deliberately run into the bridge. They believed that if the boat had been drifting out of control, it would have drifted with the current in the channel and not touched the bridge pier.

On the other hand, the steamboat interests were loud in their condemnation of the bridge. They maintained that the bridge was an impediment to navigation and had caused the destruction of a fine vessel. Meanwhile, the bridge was repaired, and traffic was again crossing the bridge by September 8. It had been out of commission for only four months.

Shortly thereafter, Capt. John Hurd, owner of the Effie Afton, filed suit in the U.S. District Court at Chicago, demanding damages from the Railroad Bridge Company for the loss of his ship and cargo. The complaint alleged that the Effie Acton was carefully and skillfully navigated at the time and that the boat "was forcibly driven by the currents and eddies" caused by the bridge piers, resulting in the destruction of the boat by fire.

The Rock Island Bridge Company maintained that the accident, so-called, was in fact an intentional and premeditated act, a charge angrily denied by the shipowners. The impending litigation, officially docketed as Hurd v. Rock Island Railroad Company, promised to be the "battle of the century" for the competing transportation rivals. The case attracted national attention and proved to be the most notable of all of Abraham Lincoln's court cases.

Lincoln was hired as lead defense counsel as a result of a conversation between Henry Farnum, president of the Rock Island Railroad, and Norman B. Judd, the general counsel and a friend of Lincoln's. The two men, in conjunction with other officials of the Rock Island, realized that they needed a strong and popular man to handle the case. Judd remarked that "Lincoln was one of the best men to state a case forcibly and convincingly that I have ever heard . . . and his personality will appeal to any judge or jury."

Lincoln was already an experienced railroad lawyer when he accepted the case. From 1852 to 1860, he handled cases for the Illinois Central. Three times as an attorney for the Alton & Sangamon Railroad, he won cases that eventually came before the U.S. Supreme Court. He also had previously argued two cases in the U.S. District Court involving the question of the obstruction of navigable rivers by the construction of bridges. In one of these cases, he was legal counsel on the side of the river interests.

Lincoln almost always sought out the fundamental facts on which to base his case. He had a reputation of being very well prepared. He apparently was not satisfied with the explanations of the accident given by the bridge master, bridge engineer, and others. A few days after he took the case, he traveled to Rock Island to see the bridge firsthand. He walked out onto the bridge and, as the story goes, met a boy sitting out on one of the spans. He asked the boy if he lived around here and the boy replied, "Yes, sir. I live in Davenport. My dad helped build this railroad." Lincoln then asked the boy if he knew much about the river. When the boy answered in the affirmative, Lincoln laughed and said, "I'm mighty glad I came out here where I can get a little less opinion and more fact. Tell me now, how fast does this water run under here?

Lincoln and the boy figured out the speed of the river current under the bridge by timing how fast a log traveled from the island to the bridge. The boy who told this story was Benjamin R. Brayton, son of B. B. Brayton, resident engineer on the project, and who later was also a Rock Island engineer. Lincoln, with his customary thoroughness, studied other information concerning the current, speeds, eddies, and the traffic of the river, including the survey of the river done by Robert E. Lee. During the trial, Lincoln scored points with the jury with his intimate knowledge of the measurements of the bridge and the river.

Thus Lincoln was fully prepared as the case came to trial in the U.S. Circuit Court in Chicago, again before Judge John MacLean, on September 8, 1857. The roster of counsel appearing for Captain Hurd was impressive. The team was headed by Judge H. M. Wead of Peoria, the best "river lawyer" in the state. Judge MacLean, during his charge to the jury, said the whole case boiled down to one point: Was the bridge a material obstruction to navigation? The trial lasted fourteen days. Engineers, pilots, boat owners, rivermen, and bridge builders were subjected to examination and cross-examination by the opposing lawyers. Models of the steamboat and the bridge, along with many maps were exhibited. The conflict in testimony was direct and extensive.

Finally, after both sides had rested, Lincoln rose to make an eloquent, if lengthy closing argument in favor of the bridge. In his argument, Lincoln, as a former riverman, showed that he understood the romance of the Mississippi River and its boat life. St. Louis and the steamboat interests did what they had to do under the circumstances, and he did not blame them. Yet there was a growing travel from east to west that had to be considered that was as important as the Mississippi traffic. Lincoln declared that "It is growing larger and larger, building up new countries with a rapidity never before seen in the history of the world." In the year following the accident, the railroad had hauled 12,586 freight cars and 74,179 passengers across the bridge.

During four months of the year, winter weather made the river unnavigable, but the bridge and the railroad could be used. Lincoln analyzed the angles of the piers, the curve of the river, the depth of the channel, and the velocity of the current. He discounted the notions of a tunnel or a suspension bridge, saying that they were too expensive and that somebody would always build a steamship higher than the bridge. Lincoln maintained that the pilot drove his boat as though the river had no bridge with piers in it, and the starboard paddle wheel was not working. He declared that by no stretch of the imagination could a steamboat, out of control, get so far out of the current as to be able to hit the pier. However, the main focus of his argument was that one man had as good a right to cross a river as another had to sail up or down it. He perhaps melodramatically concluded that the fate of the civilization of the west was at stake.

Two days after beginning his summation, Lincoln finally came to a halt. He said that he had more to say, but that he had used up his time. The jury deliberated for a few hours and ended up as a hung jury. Therefore, the judge dismissed the case. The court's action was seen as a victory for railroads, bridges, and Chicago over steamboats, rivers, and St. Louis.

Hurd v. Rock Island Bridge Company was a crucial case in Lincoln's career and solidified his reputation as a great trial lawyer, which served him well when he ran for President three years later.

Bridge Opponents Continue the Fight

The fight, however, was still not over. During 1858, the Committee on Commerce of the U.S. House of Representatives conducted an investigation to determine if the Rock Island Bridge was a serious obstruction to the navigation of the river. The committee concluded that the bridge did constitute a hazard because of the length of the pier, the angle of the bridge, and the swift current under the bridge. The committee believed, however, that the courts should settle the matter and therefore did not recommend any action by Congress.

Predictably, in May 1858, James Ward, a St. Louis steamboat owner, filed suit in the U.S. District Court for the Southern Division of Iowa asking the court to declare the bridge a nuisance and order its removal and restore the river to its original capacity for all purposes of navigation. After voluminous testimony, Judge John Love gave his decision on April 3, 1860, for the plaintiff. He declared the bridge a nuisance and ordered the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad to remove the three piers and their superstructure that lay on the Iowa side. The judge reasoned that if this bridge was not stopped, many other bridges would follow.

The piers were not torn out, for the railroad appealed the case to the U.S. Supreme Court. Mississippi and Missouri Railroad Company v. Ward came before the Court during its December 1862 term and was decided on January 30, 1863. That Court, although not by unanimous decision, reversed the decision of the district court and allowed the bridge to remain. Justice John Catron, writing for the Court, stated that because the jurisdiction of the Iowa court extended only to the middle of the river, removing the bridge on the Iowa side would solve nothing in the matter of obstruction. Furthermore, Catron reasoned that if Judge Love's decision was accepted, then "no lawful bridge could be built across the Mississippi anywhere nor could the great facilities to commerce, accomplished by the invention of railroads, be made available where great rivers had to be crossed." One could not stop the inevitability of progress: that railroads needed to cross rivers.

This view was reaffirmed in another U.S. Supreme Court case, The Galena, Dubuque, Dunleith, and Minnesota Packet Co. v. The Rock Island Bridge. This case resulted from the appeal of a libel filed in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois for alleged damages done by the bridge to two steamboats. The plaintiff claimed that the bridge obstructed the free navigation of the river and that the bridge had done seventy thousand dollars' worth of damage to his steamboats. The court found for the plaintiff, and the property was attached.

The Mississippi and Missouri Railroad and others then filed an exception to the jurisdiction of the court to take a proceeding against the property. The district and circuit courts sustained the objection, and the case was dismissed. The railroad then requested the Supreme Court to confirm the correctness of this ruling. On December 30, 1867, the Court upheld the decision, and the bridge was allowed to remain. Speaking for the Court, Justice Stephen Johnson Field argued that "though bridges and wharves may aid commerce by facilitating intercourse on land, or the discharge of cargoes, they are not in any sense the subjects of maritime lien." A maritime lien could exist only upon movable things engaged in navigation (such as vessels, steamers, and rafts), not things that are fixed and immovable (such as a wharf, bridge, or real estate of any kind). The result of the decision was to establish for all time the right to bridge navigable streams. The way was legally clear to build more bridges over the Mississippi. Of course, by this time there were already several bridges across the river. This decision marked the effective end of the Rock Island Bridge litigation.

Downstream elevation drawing of the second bridge at Rock Island. (William Riebe, "The Government Bridge," The Rock Island Digest)

Two more bridges were built at the Rock Island site. The original Rock Island Bridge (rebuilt after the 1856 collision) did not have a long lifespan. During the Civil War, Rock Island was used as a Union prison camp for Confederate soldiers. After the war, the value of the island having been established, the government proposed that an arsenal be built on the island. In 1867 government officials and the Rock Island Railroad drew up an agreement granting the company a new right-of-way across the western (or lower) end of the island. The new bridge, opened in November 1872, was a double-decked structure owned and used jointly by the railroad and the government, giving rise to its nickname, the "Government Bridge."

As the years passed, the need for a double-track bridge grew. Most of the Rock Island mainline had been double-tracked, creating a bottleneck at the single-track bridge. Congress authorized work on a new double-track bridge, built on the piers of the existing bridge, in 1895. The new 1,850-foot-long bridge, which is the present bridge, was completed by November 1896 at a cost to the railroad of $305,732. The bridge was constructed of steel except for the iron track and the roadway systems.

With the increase in river traffic, the bridge has been the victim of many barge accidents over the years but has seldom been out of commission for more than a few hours. The Rock Island Railroad ceased using the bridge for rail traffic in 1980, and today it is used solely as a highway bridge.

The story of the building of the Rock Island bridge involved not only the physical construction of the bridge but also the larger issues of the rivalry of the north-south riverboat trade versus the east-west axis of railroads and westward migration. It pitted St. Louis and the river interests against Chicago and the railroads to determine which eventually would become the hub of Midwest commerce. The issue of the right to cross navigable streams was decided for all time. It also found Jefferson Davis and Abraham Lincoln on opposite sides of a case with wider ramifications, involving issues that would soon bring the country to civil war.

Besides the Rock Island Bridge, other notable engineering monuments now dot the length of the Mississippi: the Huey P. Long Bridge in New Orleans, the Eads and Merchants Bridges in St. Louis, and the James J. Hill Stone Arch Bridge in Minneapolis. These bridges, along with the signing of the Homestead Act and the Pacific Railroad Act by President Lincoln in 1862 and the completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869, spurred westward settlement. However, history will remember that the Rock Island bridge was the first to cross the Father of Waters, thus removing the Mississippi River as a barrier to American railroads.

Note on Sources

The case files for the two Rock Island Bridge U.S. Supreme Court Cases are located in the Records of the United States Supreme Court, Record Group 267, National Archives at College Park, MD: Entry 21, Appellate Case Files, 1792–2000, Case File #4092, Mississippi and Missouri Railroad Company v. Ward, and Case File #4685, The Galena, Dubuque, and Minnesota Packet Co. v. The Rock Island Bridge. Summaries of both of these cases (67 U.S. 485 and 73 U.S. 213) are located online at LexisNexis Scholastic Edition at www.lexisnexis.com.

Unfortunately, the court records for the U.S. District Court for Northern Illinois, and particularly the Hurd v. Rock Island Bridge Company case, were destroyed in the Chicago fire of 1871. The House of Representatives Report #250, 35th Congress, 1st session, entitled "Railroad Bridge Across the Mississippi River at Rock Island," April 15, 1858, is available in Record Group 233, Records of the House of Representatives, Center for Legislative Archives, National Archives, Washington, DC.

Secondary sources used and recommended concerning the construction and history of the Rock Island Bridge include Frank F. Fowle, The Original Rock Island Bridge Across the Mississippi River, Railway & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin #56, 1941 John F. Stover, Iron Road to the West, American Railroads in the 1850's (New York: Columbia University Press, 1978) William Riebe, "The Government Bridge," The Rock Island Digest 2 (1982) John C. Parish, "The First Mississippi Bridge," The Palimpsest 3 (1922) William Edward Hayes, Iron Road to Empire: The History of 100 Years of the Progress and Achievements of the Rock Island Lines (New York: Simmons-Boardman, 1953) and the "First Bridge Across the Mississippi River Rivals Fiction for Drama and High Adventure," Rock Island News-Digest, October 1952.

Sources concerning Abraham Lincoln and his involvement with the Rock Island Bridge Company case are Albert A. Woldman, Lawyer Lincoln (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1936) John M. Starr, Jr., Lincoln and the Railroads (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1927) Bernie Babcock, "Lincoln and the First Mississippi Bridge," Railroad Man's Magazine (1931) Albert J. Beveridge, Abraham Lincoln, 1809–1858, jild 1 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1928) Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln, The Prairie Years, jild 2 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1926) and Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, jild 2 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1953).

For information concerning Jefferson Davis and the bridge, see Dwight L. Agnew, "Jefferson Davis and the Rock Island Bridge," Iowa Journal of History 47 (1949).

David A. Pfeiffer is an archivist with the Civilian Records Staff, Textual Archives Services Division, of the National Archives at College Park. He specializes in transportation records and has published articles and given numerous presentations concerning railroad records in the National Archives. U muallifi Records Relating to North American Railroads, Reference Information Paper #91 (National Archives and Records Administration).


The Steamboat House, Circa 1853 in Louisiana. Built out of lumber from a steamboat. $295,000

Love the double porches! The Steamboat House was built in 1853. It is located on .32 acres in Natchitoches, Louisiana. The home was made of lumber from a dismantled steamboat. There is a river across the street so you can watch it as you sit on one of your two front porches. The house is situated on the parade route so you can watch from the comfort of your own home. Four bedrooms, five bathrooms, and 2,800 square feet. $329,000 New price: $295,000

HISTORIC DISTRICT – NATCHITOCHES HISTORY. The Steamboat House, located in the heart of the National Landmark Historic District. Built in the mid-1800s with lumber from a dismantled steamboat, this home has character of an older home with amenities of a new one. Full wrap porches upstairs and down give ample places to sit and read, watch the river, or just relax. Front door leads to comfortable living room with faux fireplace and original wood floors. The living room is open to the formal dining area with faux fireplace and a gorgeous chef’s kitchen. The kitchen island has antique stools with full glass view of a courtyard. Stainless appliances and storage galore. Circular stair leads from kitchen to master suite. Bedroom with private bath/separate tub and shower downstairs. Utility and half bath downstairs. Main staircase leads to 3 bedrooms and 3 baths upstairs. Huge master with private bath-separate soaker tub, shower, fireplace, 2 sinks, walk in closet. Live on parade route.


6. Twain based Huckleberry Finn on a real person.


Set in the antebellum South, �ventures of Huckleberry Finn” is the story of the title character, a young misfit who floats down the Mississippi River on a raft with Jim, a runaway slave. Huck Finn made his literary debut in Twain’s 1876 novel “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer,” appearing as Sawyer’s sidekick. The model for Huck Finn was Tom Blankenship, a boy four years older than Twain who he knew growing up in Hannibal. Blankenship’s family was poor and his father, a laborer, had a reputation as a town drunk. As Twain noted in his autobiography: “In Huckleberry Finn I have drawn Tom Blankenship exactly as he was. He was ignorant, unwashed, insufficiently fed but he had as good a heart as ever any boy had.” It’s unknown what happened to Blankenship later in life. Twain indicated he𠆝 heard a rumor Blankenship became a justice of the peace in Montana, but other reports suggest he was jailed for theft or died of cholera.

What is certain is that from the time of its publication, �ventures of Huckleberry Finn” has been controversial. Just a month after its American release in 1885, it was banned by the public library in Concord, Massachusetts, for its supposedly coarse language and low moral tone. In the mid-20th century, critics began condemning the book as racist and in the ensuing decades it was removed from some school reading lists. Many scholars, however, contend the book is a criticism of racism.