G'arbiy Kennet Long Barrou

G'arbiy Kennet Long Barrou


G'arbiy Kennet Long Barrou Marlboro

G'arbiy Kennet Long Barrou - bu neolit ​​davriga mansub qabr yoki kurqa, qishloq xo'jaligidagi bo'r tepasida, Silberi tepaligi yaqinida, Angliya, Uiltsxir shahridagi Aveberi yaqinida. Uzunligi 328 fut (100 m) bo'lgan G'arbiy Kennet Long Barrou Britaniyadagi ikkinchi eng uzun kur'adir. (Sharqiy Kennet Barrou uzunroq.)

Taxminlarga ko'ra, qurg'on qurilishi taxminan miloddan avvalgi 3650 yilda, Stounxenjning birinchi bosqichidan 400 yil oldin boshlangan. U qisqa vaqt ichida dafn xonasi sifatida ishlatilgan, kameralar yopilmasdan oldin 30-50 kishi ko'milgan. Siz sarsen toshlari va bo'r molozlaridan qurilgan qo'rg'onga kirishingiz mumkin. Asosiy kirish sharqda joylashgan bo'lib, markaziy o'tish joyi 18 metrdan 5 ta kichik dafn xonasiga olib boradi, har tomondan 2 va oxirida. Ko'rinib turibdiki, jasadlar ijtimoiy guruhlarga dafn etilgan: g'arbiy palata asosan katta yoshli erkaklar uchun shimoli -sharqiy va shimoli -g'arbiy palatalarda, qariyalar uchun janubi -sharqda va bolalar uchun janubi -g'arbda joylashgan. Faqat bitta skelet to'liq topilgan. Tosh dafn xonalari bir chetidan boshlanadi va faqat 12 futga cho'zilgan. Qo'rg'onning qolgan qismi tepalikning har ikki yonidan o'tuvchi ikkita parallel ariqdan qazilgan sarsen toshlar va bo'rlardan iborat. Hozirda ariqlar asosan to'ldirilgan, lekin dastlab 3-4 metr chuqurlikda bo'lgan.

Arxeologlarning fikricha, qurbon ikki bosqichda qurilgan.

Radiokarbonlar bilan tanishish shuni ko'rsatadiki, G'arbiy Kennet Long Barrou qabriston sifatida ming yildan ko'proq, miloddan avvalgi 3700-3500 yildan miloddan avvalgi 2200-2000 yillar davomida ishlatilgan. Qabrlarda har xil turdagi qabr buyumlari, shu jumladan har xil turdagi kulolchilik buyumlari (250 xil idishlarning bo'laklari topilgan), suyak, tosh va qobiqdan yasalgan boncuklar, tosh otish asboblari va hayvonlarning suyaklari bor edi. Kulolchilik buyumlari qadimdan neolit ​​davriga qadar uzoq vaqtni qamrab oladi.

G'arbiy Kennet Long Barrou tarixi antik davrchi Jon Obri bilan boshlanadi, u ham Aveberi doirasini qazib olgan. U qo'riqxonaning eskizini nashr etilmagan Monumenta Britannica (c1665) kitobiga kiritdi. Uilyam Stukli 1720-24 yillarda ariq va toshlarni ko'rsatib, qurbonning aniqroq chizmalarini yaratdi.

Siz G'arbiy Kennet Long Barrou uchun mo'ljallangan A4 bo'ylab to'xtash joyida to'xtashingiz mumkin. Aveberidan A4da sharqqa qarab ketayotganingizda, u o'ng tomonda. A4-da yotqizilgan joydan, barorning o'ziga 1/2 mil uzunlikdagi tepalik piyodalar yo'li orqali etib boriladi. G'arbiy Kennet Long Barrouga Aveberi (taxminan 1,5 mil) yoki Silberi tepaligidan (1 mil) piyoda borish mumkin. G'arbiy Kennet, Marlboro, Uiltshire, SN8 1QH

Tog'ning tagida Kennet daryosining manbalaridan biri bo'lgan Swallowhead Springs deb nomlangan muqaddas quduq bor. Quduqqa erishish uchun tepalik etagidagi g'arbdagi panjara chizig'iga amal qiling. Zaif iz panjara ortidan o'tib, daraxtlar bilan tugaydi va quduq markazda.


Tarkibi

G'arbiy Evropa bo'ylab tarqalishini hisobga olgan holda, uzun kurkanlarga bu mintaqaning turli tillarida turli nomlar berilgan. [1] atama kurka ingliz tilining janubiy lahjasi bo'lib, tuproq tumani bo'lib, bunday yodgorliklar uchun ilmiy atama sifatida XVII asr ingliz antiqachisi Jon Obri tomonidan qabul qilingan. [2] Buyuk Britaniyaning boshqa joylarida topilgan sinonimlar past Cheshire, Staffordshire va Derbyshirda, tepmoq Gloucestershire va Herefordda, qanday Shimoliy Angliya va Shotlandiyada va korn Shotlandiyada. [3] Xalqaro foydalanishga erishishning yana bir atamasi bu bo'ldi dolmen, "stol toshi" ma'nosini anglatuvchi Bretoncha so'z, odatda, ba'zilarida bo'lmasa ham, uzun pog'onalarda joylashgan tosh xonalarga nisbatan ishlatiladi. [1]

Tarixchi Ronald Xatton bunday joylarni "qabristonlar" deb ham atash mumkin, degan xulosaga keldi, chunki ular o'liklarning qoldiqlarini saqlash uchun va marosimlarda ishlatilgan. [1] Ba'zilarida dafn marosimlari yo'q, boshqalarida ellik kishigacha qoldiqlari borligi aniqlangan. [4]

Kamerali va tuproqli tahrir

Yog'och yoki toshdan yasalgan uzun pog'onani ishlatishga qaror qilish, asosan, resurslarning mavjudligiga bog'liq. [5]

Ba'zi uzun qo'rg'onlarning ichida tosh bilan qoplangan kameralar bor edi. 20-asr boshlarida arxeologlar bu yodgorliklarni chaqira boshladilar kamerali qabrlar. [1] Arxeologlar Roy va Lesli Adkins bu yodgorliklarni shunday deb atashgan megalitik uzun pog'onalar. [6] Ko'p hollarda mahalliy tosh mavjud bo'lgan joyda ishlatilgan. [7] Palataning uslubi ikki toifaga bo'linadi. Deb nomlanuvchi bitta shakl grottes sepulchrales artificielles frantsuz arxeologiyasida erga qazilgan. [8] Ko'proq tarqalgan ikkinchi shakl sifatida tanilgan cryptes dolmeniques frantsuz arxeologiyasida va kameraning er ustida qurilishi bilan bog'liq. [8] Ko'p kamerali uzun kur'onlarning yon kameralari bor edi, ular ko'pincha xoch shaklidagi shaklga ega edi. [9] Boshqalarda yon panjalari bo'lmagan, ular shunday nomlanadi farqlanmagan qabrlar. [9]

Ba'zi uzun qo'riqxonalarning ichida kameralar yo'q. Jon Tyornxem bu "kamerali" qo'rg'onlar deb atagan, [10], arxeolog Styuart Piggot ular uchun "tuproqli" qo'rg'onlar atamasini afzal ko'rgan. [11] Yan Kinnes buning o'rniga "megalitik bo'lmagan qo'rg'onlar" atamasini ishlatgan. [12] Bu uzun qo'rg'onlar yog'ochdan foydalangan bo'lishi mumkin, chunki tosh yo'q edi. [1] Ba'zi tasniflash tizimlari, masalan, Buyuk Britaniyaning Milliy yodgorliklari rekordi tomonidan ishlatilgan, uzun kurbonning turlarini farqlamaydi. [13]

Arxeolog Devid Fildning ta'kidlashicha, ishlatilgan material asosida tipologik farqlarni chizish turli uzun kurbonlar orasidagi muhim o'xshashliklarni yashirishi mumkin. [10] Shuningdek, klassifikatsiyaga e'tiborni tanqid qilib, arxeologlar Lyuis-Uilyams va Pirs shunday qilishganki, bu olimlarni yodgorliklarning ma'nosi va maqsadini tushuntirish vazifasidan chalg'itadi. [9]

Dizayn va arxitektura tahrirlash

Uzoq qo'rg'onlar, odatda, erdan yasalgan, tepalari ariq bilan o'ralgan yagona tepaliklardir. [4] Ularning uzunligi odatda 20-70 metrni tashkil qiladi, garchi bu spektrning har ikki chekkasidagi alohida misollar. [14]

Erta neolit ​​davrida uzun qo'rg'onlar qurilishi bir qancha odamlarning hamkorligini talab qilgan bo'lardi va vaqt va resurslarga muhim sarmoya kiritgan bo'lar edi. [15] Ular metall asboblarsiz qurilgan. [16]

Ko'pincha uslub va materialda mintaqaviy farqlar mavjud. Masalan, Buyuk Britaniyaning shimoli va g'arbiy qismida, uzun kur'onlar ko'pincha ichidagi kameralari bo'lgan tosh tepalardan iborat bo'lsa, Buyuk Britaniyaning janubi va sharqida bu uzun qabrlar odatda erdan qilingan. [13]

Uzoq vaqt davomida ko'pchilik o'zgartirildi va qayta tiklandi. [7] Arxeologlar uchun qadimgi neolit ​​davrida yodgorlikka qilingan turli xil o'zgartirishlar natijasida uzun qurbonning qaysi sanada qurilganligini aniqlash qiyin. [17] Xuddi shunday, ham modifikatsiya, ham keyinchalik shikastlanish uzun barrowning asl dizaynini aniqlashni qiyinlashtirishi mumkin. [18]

Arxitektura nuqtai nazaridan, neolit ​​davridagi Evropaning uzun qo'rg'onlari va boshqa yodgorlik turlari, masalan, qirg'oq qurbonlari, kurus yodgorliklari, uzun kornişlar va o'likxona to'siqlari o'rtasida juda ko'p o'xshashliklar mavjud. [14] Bank qurbonlari stilistik jihatdan uzun kurbonlarga o'xshash, lekin ancha uzunroqdir. [19] Cursus yodgorliklari parallel ariqlarni ham namoyish qiladilar, lekin ular uzun qabrlarga qaraganda ancha uzoq masofalarga cho'ziladi. [20]

Enviro-arxeologik tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatdiki, uzun qo'riqxonalarning ko'pchiligi o'rmonli landshaftlarda qurilgan. [21] Britaniyada, bu kamerali uzun kur'onlar odatda ko'zga ko'ringan tepaliklar va yonbag'irlarda joylashgan, [22] ayniqsa daryolar va kirishlar tepasida joylashgan va vodiylarga qaragan. [23] Buyuk Britaniyada, uzun pog'onalar ko'pincha tuproqli yodgorlik shaklidagi to'siqlar yaqinida qurilgan. [7]

Butun Evropa bo'ylab, 40 mingga yaqin uzun kurqan, erta neolit ​​davridan omon qolganligi ma'lum. [1] Ular G'arbiy Evropaning ko'p qismida, Ispaniyaning janubi -sharqidan Shvetsiyaning janubigacha cho'zilgan va g'arbda Britaniya orollarida joylashgan. [1] Uzoq qo'rg'onlar dunyodagi eng qadimgi toshdan yasalgan inshootlar emas, ular zamonaviy Turkiyada Go'bekli tepadan yasalgan - lekin ular qurilishda toshdan foydalanishning eng qadimgi keng tarqalgan an'anasini ifodalaydi. [24] Arxeolog Frensis Linch ularni omon qolish uchun "Evropadagi eng qadimgi qurilgan inshootlar" deb ta'riflagan, [25], Fild esa ular Buyuk Britaniyada saqlanib qolgan eng qadimiy yodgorliklar ekanligini ta'kidlagan. [4] Garchi bu katta maydonda joylashgan bo'lsa -da, ularni me'moriy farqlarga asoslangan aniq mintaqaviy an'analarga bo'lish mumkin. [1]

Qozuv ishlari shuni ko'rsatdiki, zamonaviy Ispaniya, Portugaliya va G'arbiy Frantsiya hududidagi uzun qo'riqxonalarning bir qismi miloddan avvalgi beshinchi ming yillikning o'rtalarida qurilgan, bu ularni shimolda joylashgan uzun kur'onlardan ham eski qilib qo'ygan. [24] Shu sababli, eng qadimgi uzun kur'onlar qurilgan umumiy maydon ma'lum bo'lsa -da, arxeologlar an'ana qayerdan boshlanganini va qaysi uzun kur'onlar birinchi qurilganini aniq bilishmaydi. [24] Demak, me'moriy an'ana G'arbiy Evropaning janubida, shimolda, Atlantika qirg'og'i bo'ylab tarqalmasdan oldin rivojlangan ko'rinadi. [24] Bu an'ana Buyuk Britaniyaga miloddan avvalgi IV ming yillikning birinchi yarmida, dehqonchilikdan ko'p o'tmay yoki ba'zi hollarda, ehtimol undan oldinroq etib kelgan. [24] Keyinchalik u shimoldan materik Evropaga tarqaldi, masalan, miloddan avvalgi to'rtinchi ming yillikning ikkinchi yarmida Gollandiyaga keldi. [24]

Keyinchalik neolitda dafn marosimlari odamga ko'proq e'tibor qaratishga moyil bo'lib, bu ijtimoiy ierarxiyaning kuchayib borishini va kollektiv dafn marosimidan voz kechishni taklif qiladi. [26] Oxirgi kamerali qabrlardan biri Uelsning Anglesi shtatidagi Bryn Celli Ddu bo'lib, odamlar G'arbiy Evropaning ko'p qismida ularni qurishni to'xtatgandan keyin qurilgan. Yodgorlikning ongli anaxronizmi ekskavatorlarni uning qurilishi odamlar boshqa joylarda yo'q bo'lib ketgan eski diniy urf -odatlarni tiklashga qasddan qilingan urinishning bir qismi ekanligini taxmin qilishiga olib keldi. [27]

Xatton bu an'ana boshqalarga qaraganda "G'arbiy Evropaning ilk neolitini aniqlaydi", degan taklifni bildirgan [1], arxeolog Devid Fild ularni "Britaniya landshaftidagi eng mashhur va tan olinadigan arxeologik yodgorliklar orasida" deb ta'riflagan. [10] Arxeolog Karolin Malone uchun uzun kur'onlar "tarixdan oldingi Buyuk Britaniyaning eng ta'sirli va estetik jihatdan ajralib turadigan inshootlari" dir. [26] Uning arxeolog hamkasbi Frenss Linchning ta'kidlashicha, bu uzun qo'rg'onlar "hatto gotik soborlari va baland osmono'par binolari bilan tanish bo'lgan zamonaviy aholida ham hayrat, hayrat va qiziqishni uyg'otishi mumkin". [25]

Mintaqaviy o'zgarishlarni tahrirlash

Janubiy Ispaniya, Portugaliya, Frantsiyaning janubi -g'arbiy va Bretaniya mintaqalarida uzun kurqanlar odatda katta tosh xonalarni o'z ichiga oladi. [25]

Buyuk Britaniyada orolning janubiy va sharqiy qismlarida tuproqdan yasalgan uzun qo'rg'onlar ustunlik qiladi. [25] Buyuk Britaniyaning sharqiy chekkasidan, shimolda Aberdinshirdan janubda, janubda, janubda, janubda, janubda, janubda, janubda, janubda, Dorset va Galloueyga qadar ikkita proektsiyasi bilan, taxminan 300 ga yaqin tuproqli kurqonlar ma'lum. [2] Qozuv ishlari shuni ko'rsatdiki, bu uzun tuproqli kur'onlar miloddan avvalgi 3800-3000 yillar oralig'ida qurilgan. [2]

Britaniyadagi yana bir mashhur mintaqaviy an'ana-orolning g'arbiy qismida joylashgan Cotswold-Severn guruhi. [28] Bu odatda kamerali uzun kur'onlar bo'lib, ularning har birida o'rtacha 40 dan 50 kishigacha bo'lgan odam suyaklari bor. [28]

Gollandiya va Germaniyaning shimolida topilgan uzun kur'onlar ham o'z qurilishida tosh ishlatilgan. [29] Polshaning ba'zi joylarida topilgan uzun qabrlarga misollar megalitik emas, balki odatda tuproqdir. [25] Shimolda, Daniya va Shvetsiyaning janubida, uzun kur'onlar odatda qurilishida tosh ishlatgan. [25]

Erta neolit ​​davridagi uzun qo'rg'onlarning maqsadi va ma'nosi noma'lum, [30], ammo arxeologlar an'analar doirasida kuzatilishi mumkin bo'lgan takrorlanuvchi naqshlar asosida takliflar berishlari mumkin. [31] Biroq, arxeologlar bu yodgorliklarning ma'nosi va maqsadi to'g'risida kelisha olishmadi, har xil talqinlar ilgari surildi. [32] Linch, uzun kur'onlar, ehtimol, ularni qurgan va ishlatgan jamoalar uchun "keng diniy va ijtimoiy rollarga" ega bo'lishini taklif qilib, ularni o'rta asrlar va zamonaviy Evropaning cherkovlari bilan taqqoslagan. [33]

Dafn joylari Tahrirlash

Ko'plab uzun qo'rg'onlar marhumlarning qoldiqlarini qo'yish uchun qabrlar sifatida ishlatilgan. [1] Shu sababli, Malone kabi arxeologlar ularni "o'liklarning uylari" deb atashgan. [26] Aksincha, ko'pgina uzun qo'rg'onlar qabrlar sifatida ishlatilmagan ko'rinadi, arxeologlar tomonidan qazib olingan turli misollar, u erda odam qoldiqlari saqlanganligini isbotlamaydi. [34] Arxeologlar Devid Lyuis-Uilyams va Devid Süll, ammo, bu uzun qabrlar qabrlardan ham ko'proq ekanligini, shuningdek, "diniy va ijtimoiy markazlar" ekanligini ta'kidlab, ular o'liklarga tiriklar tashrif buyuradigan va odamlar tashrif buyuradigan joy bo'lganligini ko'rsatadi. marhum bilan munosabatlarni saqlab qolgan. [35]

Ba'zi hollarda kameraga yotqizilgan suyaklar u erga joylashtirilganda eski bo'lib qolgan bo'lishi mumkin. [17] Boshqa hollarda, ular uzun panjara qurilganidan ancha keyin kameraga joylashtirilgan bo'lishi mumkin. [17] Ba'zi hollarda, dastlab kameraga kiritilgan suyak kollektsiyalari erta neolit ​​davrida olib tashlanishi va almashtirilishi mumkin edi. [36]

Uzoq qabrlarga joylashtirilgan odam qoldiqlari ko'pincha erkaklar, ayollar va bolalar aralashmasidan iborat edi. [33] Ko'pincha turli odamlarning suyaklari bir -biriga aralashib ketgan. [33] Bu, marhumlar orasidagi boylik va maqomning farqini yo'q qilish istagini aks ettirgan bo'lishi mumkin. [33] Erta neolitda vafot etganlarning hammasi ham bu uzun qo'rg'onlarga dafn etilmagan, ammo kimning qoldiqlari dafn etilgani va kim bo'lmaganligi noma'lum. [37] Erta neolit ​​davridagi aholining katta qismi dafn qilinmagan, garchi ularning jasad qoldiqlariga qanday ishlov berilishi aniq emas. [26] Balki ular ochiq havoda qolib ketishgan. [26]

Kamerali suyaklar cho'kmasidan oldin, ekskarnatsiya harakati qaerda sodir bo'lganligi ham ma'lum emas. [36] Ba'zi odam suyaklari erta neolit ​​sopol yodgorligi shaklidagi to'siqlar bilan o'ralgan to'siqlar quduqlaridan topilgan, Gamledon tepaligida esa erta neolit ​​davrida jasadlarning ochiq havoda ochilgani haqidagi dalillar topilgan. [36] Ko'p uzun qo'rg'onlar oldida topilgan teshiklar, shuningdek, ekskarnatsiya o'tkazilgan platformalarning asosini ham ifodalagan bo'lishi mumkin. [36]

Xonalarga yangi material qo'shish yoki olib tashlash uchun kirganda, ehtimol, chirigan murdaning hidiga duch kelgan bo'lardi. [38] Shuning uchun bu hududga kirishni erta neolit ​​davridagi yevropaliklar engib o'tish yoki sharafli ish deb bilishganmi yoki yo'qmi noma'lum. [38]

Ba'zi xonalarda, odam qoldiqlari suyak turiga yoki odamning yoshi va jinsiga qarab joylashtirilgan va tartibga solingan, ular qaysi kameraga joylashtirilganligini aniqlagan. [17] Linch "bizning asosiy qismimiz Omon qolgan dalillar shuni ko'rsatadiki, kollektivlik neolitning oxirigacha odatiy holga aylangan va qolgan. [36]

Nisbatan kamdan -kam hollarda, uzun qabrlar ichida odam suyagi bilan birga ko'milgan qabr buyumlari topilgan. [39] Qaerdan topilgan bo'lsa, arxeologlar ularni odatda dafn marosimlari yoki ziyofat qoldiqlari deb talqin qilishgan. [39] Qabul qilingan mollarni tanlash mintaqaviy xilma -xillikni aks ettiradi. [39] Angliya janubi-g'arbiy qismidagi Cotswold-Severn guruhida odatda qoramol suyaklari xonalarda topilgan bo'lib, ular ko'pincha odam qoldiqlariga o'xshab davolangan. [40]

Ba'zida odam qoldiqlari ko'p asrlar davomida palatalarga joylashtirilgan. [17] Masalan, Angliya janubidagi Oksfordshirdagi G'arbiy Kennet Long Barrou shahrida odam qoldiqlarining eng qadimgi topilmalari miloddan avvalgi 4-ming yillik boshlari va o'rtalariga tegishli bo'lgan radiokarbonlar edi, keyinchalik odam qoldiqlarining qoldiqlari bu erga tegishli ekanligi aniqlandi. Miloddan avvalgi III ming yillikning oxirgi asrlarida sanani ko'rsatgan stakan madaniyati, odam qoldiqlari 1500 yil mobaynida kameraga vaqti -vaqti bilan joylashtirilganligini bildiradi. [17] Bu shuni ko'rsatadiki, ba'zi kamerali uzun kur'onlar vaqti -vaqti bilan neolit ​​davriga qadar ishlatilgan. [41]

Turli holatlarda, arxeologlar palatalar ichidagi birikmalarda bo'lmagan aniq suyaklarni topdilar. Masalan, Angliya janubidagi Uiltsxir shahridagi Fussell uyida bir qancha skelet majmualarida nafaqat mayda suyaklar, balki uzun suyaklar va bosh suyaklari yo'qligi aniqlangan. [42] Shuning uchun, ehtimol, ba'zi neolit ​​davrida ritualistik faoliyatda foydalanish uchun ba'zi suyaklar ataylab palatalardan olib tashlangan bo'lishi mumkin. [43]

Dizaynning kelib chiqishi Tahrir

Kamerali uzun pog'onalarni loyihalash uchun ilhom manbai aniq emas. [24] Arxeologlar orasida mashhur bo'lgan takliflar shundaki, ular tabiiy tog 'jinslaridan yoki yog'och uylarning shaklidan ilhomlangan. [44] Ularning dizayni erta neolit ​​davrida Evropaning markazida topilgan yog'och uzun uylarga asoslangan deb taxmin qilingan, biroq oxirgi ma'lum bo'lgan uzun uylar va birinchi ma'lum bo'lgan kamerali uzun kur'onlar o'rtasida etti asrlik bo'shliq bor. [32]

Diniy saytlar tahrirlash

Mumkin bo'lgan tushuntirishga ko'ra, uzun qo'rg'onlar kosmosshunoslik va ma'naviyat haqidagi dastlabki neolit ​​g'oyalari bilan bog'liq bo'lgan joy belgilari bo'lib xizmat qilgan va shunga mos ravishda o'liklar vositachiligida marosim faoliyati markazlari bo'lgan. [45] Inson qoldiqlarini kiritish, bu uzun kur'onlarning ota -bobolariga sajda qilishda qatnashganligini isbotlash uchun ishlatilgan. [45] Malone, bu qo'rg'onlarning mashhurligi, erta neolit ​​davridagi odamlar uchun, mezolit o'tmishdoshlariga qaraganda, muhimroq deb hisoblanishini ko'rsatdi. [26] Yigirmanchi asrning boshlarida, uzun qo'rg'onlarning diniy joylar sifatida talqin qilinishi, ular ko'chmanchilar yoki missionerlar tomonidan tarqatilgan yangi dinning muqaddas joylari degan fikr bilan bog'liq edi. Bu tushuntirish 1970 -yillardan beri arxeologlar orasida unchalik mashhur emas. [32]

Kognitiv arxeologiyaga asoslangan yondashuvni qo'llagan Lyuis-Uilyams va Pirs, ramzlar tizimi vositachiligidagi kosmosni "bir vaqtning o'zida nevrologik tarzda yaratilgan kosmosning madaniy o'ziga xos ifodasini aks ettirgan va bir vaqtning o'zida tashkil qilgan", deb ta'kidlashdi. [46] Ular palatalarga kirish joylari qurbonlik marosimlari o'tkaziladigan o'tish davri zonalari sifatida qaralishini va ular olov yordamida o'liklarni o'zgartirish uchun joy bo'lishi mumkinligini taklif qilishdi. [40]

Hududiy belgilar Tahrirlash

Ikkinchi tushuntirish shundaki, bu uzun kur'onlar dehqonchilikka o'tish bilan uzviy bog'liq bo'lib, erga yangicha qarashni anglatadi. Bu talqinda uzun qo'rg'onlar erni bo'linib, ma'lum bir jamoa tomonidan ishg'ol qilingan va nazorat qilinganligini bildiruvchi hudud raqami bo'lib xizmat qilgan va shu tariqa raqib guruhlarni ogohlantirgan. [32] Bu talqinni himoya qilib, Malone har bir "qabr hududi" odatda o'z atrofidagi bir qancha tuproqlar va landshaft turlariga kira olishini ta'kidlab, bu ma'lum bir jamoa uchun munosib hududiy hududni anglatishi mumkinligini ko'rsatdi. [7] Shuningdek, ba'zi Shotlandiya orollarida kamerali uzun kurkanlarning tarqalishi fermalar va xo'jaliklar o'rtasidagi zamonaviy er bo'linmalarini yaqindan aks ettiruvchi naqshlarni ko'rsatishi ham bu talqinni qo'llab -quvvatlaydi. [7] Bu talqin, shuningdek, butun dunyo bo'ylab yozilgan jamoalarning etnografik o'xshashliklarini keltirib chiqaradi, ular hududni chegaralash uchun yodgorliklardan ham foydalangan. [45]

Bu g'oya 1980-90 -yillarda arxeologlar orasida mashhur bo'lib ketdi va dinni past baholab, bu yodgorliklarning iqtisodiy izohini ta'kidlab, unga Evropaning arxeologik muassasalarida mashhur bo'lgan marksistik g'oyalar ta'sir ko'rsatdi. [47] Yigirma birinchi asrning boshlarida arxeologlar bu g'oyaga qarshi chiqa boshladilar, chunki dastlabki neolit ​​davridagi Buyuk Britaniyaning ko'p qismi o'rmonli bo'lganligi va uning aholisi dehqonchilikka emas, balki chorvadorlar bo'lganiga dalillar paydo bo'ldi. Shunga ko'ra, Britaniyadagi jamoalar yarim ko'chmanchi bo'lar edi, hududiy chegarani belgilashga yoki erga egalik qilishning aniq belgilariga ehtiyoj yo'q edi. [45] Bundan tashqari, bu tushuntirish nima uchun kamerali uzun pog'onalarni peyzaj bo'ylab bir tekis taqsimlanganidan ko'ra, ma'lum joylarga to'planishi kerakligini tushuntirib bera olmaydi. [45]

Ko'p xonali uzun kur'onlar buzilmagan va ming yillar davomida buzilgan. [3] Ba'zi hollarda palataning ko'p qismi olib tashlangan, faqat uchta toshli dolmenlar qolgan. [18]

Temir davri va Rim tahrirdan foydalanadi

Miloddan avvalgi I ming yillikning birinchi yarmida, inglizlarning ko'pgina uzun kurkanlarida inson faoliyati qayta tiklangan. [48] ​​Angliyaning janubi -sharqidagi Kent shahridagi Julliberrining qabrida uchta inhumatsiya uzun kurqa atrofidagi ariqning janubiy chetiga dafn etilgan. [48] ​​Angliyaning janubi -sharqidagi Oksfordshirdagi Wayland's Smithy qo'rg'oni uzoq qabriston atrofida qurilgan qabristonni ko'rdi, 42 ta qabrda kamida 46 skeletlari ko'milgan, ularning ko'plari boshi kesilgan. [48] ​​Dorsetning Wor Barrou shahrida 17 ta Romano-Britaniya dafnlari topildi, ularning sakkiztasida boshi yo'q edi. [48]

Tangalarni uzun qo'riqxonalarga joylashtirish ham Rim Britaniyasida juda keng tarqalgan bo'lib tuyuladi va bu yodgorliklar ularni qurbonlik sifatida joylashtirgan bo'lishi mumkin. [48] ​​Masalan, Julliberri qabrining atrofidagi qozonga Konstantin tangalari yig'ilgan. [49] Skendlebi I dagi uzun kurqa atrofidagi xandaqdan Allectus hukmronligi davridagi yakka tanga topilgan [48].

Antikvar va arxeologik tergov

Kamerali uzun kurkanlarni birinchi jiddiy tadqiqi XVI -XVII asrlarda, xonalarni yopib qo'ygan tepaliklar qishloq xo'jaligi tomonidan olib tashlanganida sodir bo'lgan. [50] XIX asrga kelib, antikvar va arxeologlar yodgorlikning bu uslubini qabr shakli sifatida tan olishgan. [50] XIX -XX asr boshlarida V. Gordon Childe kabi arxeologlar G'arbiy Evropa yodgorliklari dastlab O'rta er dengizi sharqiy qismlarida ishlab chiqarilgan qabrlarga asoslangan, degan xulosaga kelishdi. yo Misrda, yoki Kritda. [51] Bu nuqtai nazardan qaraganda, bu urf -odat "megalitik din" ning bir qismi sifatida g'arbga tarqaldi. [29]

Uels arxeologi Glin Daniel tomonidan yozilgan uzun qo'riqxonalarning asosiy tadqiqotlari 1958 yilda nashr etilgan. G'arbiy Evropaning megalit quruvchilari. [29] 1950 yilda Doniyor Buyuk Britaniyada ma'lum bo'lgan kamerali uzun qo'riqxonalarning o'ndan bir qismi qazilganligini aytdi, [52] mintaqaviy dala tadqiqotlari ularni sanab o'tishga yordam berdi. [52] Oldingi qazishmalarning bir nechtasi kamerada topilgan odam qoldiqlari qayd etilgan yoki saqlanib qolgan. [17] 1960 -yillardan boshlab, arxeologik tadqiqotlar keng me'moriy an'analarga emas, balki uzun kurbonlarning mintaqaviy guruhlarini o'rganishga ko'proq e'tibor qaratdi. [29] Bu o'n yillardan boshlab, turli xil uzun qo'rg'onlarni sinchkovlik bilan qazish, shuningdek, uzoq qurbonlar ko'pincha ko'p fazali yodgorliklar bo'lib, ular vaqt o'tishi bilan o'zgartirilganligini keng e'tirof etishiga olib keldi. [29]

1970 -yillarga qadar, arxeologlar G'arbiy Evropaning uzun qo'rg'onlari Yaqin Sharq modellariga asoslangan deb ishonishgan. [24]

Uzoq qo'rg'onlarni arxeologik tekshirishga boshqa xususiyatlarning noto'g'ri aniqlanishi to'sqinlik qildi. Uzoq qo'rg'onlar konigir tepaliklari va quyon jangchilari bilan adashtirilib, ba'zida xuddi shunday shaklga ega bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan yostiq tepalari deb ataladi. [53] O'q miltig'ining tayoqchalari ba'zan uzun kurbonlarnikiga o'xshash shaklga ega bo'lishi mumkin. [54] Keyinchalik obodonlashtirish, shuningdek, Angliya janubi-g'arbidagi Bristol shahridagi Stok-Parkdagi ikkita tepalikni noto'g'ri aniqlashga olib keldi, 1950-yillardagi qazishmalarda ular O'rta asrlarga tegishli bo'lganligi aniqlandi. obodonlashtirish bo'yicha so'nggi loyihalar tomonidan yaratilgan. [54] Ilgari muzlik ta'sir qilgan hududlarda, vodiy zaminlaridagi morina yotqiziqlari ba'zan uzun kurqanlar deb adashgan. Masalan, Angliyaning shimoli -g'arbidagi Cheshir shahridagi Dunxem Nyu -Parkda, tepalik dastlab uzun kurkan deb ishonilgan va keyinchalik bu tabiiy xususiyat sifatida baholangan. [55] Neolit ​​davridagi uzun qo'rg'onlarning shikastlanishi, ularni boshqa turdagi yodgorliklar, masalan, oval va yumaloq qo'rg'onlar, odatda, keyingi davrga to'g'ri keladi. [54]

Aerofotografiya er yuzida deyarli ko'rinmaydigan boshqa ko'plab misollarni aniqlashda foydalidir. [13]


Sharqiy Kennet

"Tangalar qabul qilinmaydi" telefon qutisi yonidagi to'xtash joyi - "abadiy" zamonning paradoksal belgisi, Sharqiy Kennet shokolad qutisi - cherkov yonidan qisqa yurish va "qo'riqchi g'ozlar" va o'rdaklarni aylanib o'tish, bu yo'lni ajratish imkonini beradi. "Oq ot izi" biroz oldinda. Bu vaqtda chapga buriling va menimcha, uzun pog'onani yopish kerak bo'lgan ulug'vor daraxt chizig'i hozirda asosiy diqqat markaziga aylanmoqda. Asosiy yo'ldan kirishni taqiqlovchi belgilar va panjara yo'q. Qanday tetiklantiruvchi. Mantiqiy ham, chunki tashrif buyuruvchi mo'l -ko'l hosilni etaklab olishi mumkin, ayniqsa dala yonidan o'tib, dala chegarasini kuzatib turadi. Retrospektiv bug'doy yoki arpaning oltin dalalarida joylashgan Silberi tasviridir. Yo'q, menimcha, bug'doy. Sizga kerak bo'lganda Sting qayerda? U bilardi.

Uzoq qalqonni yozning yashil soyaboni butunlay yopib qo'ygandek, go'yo tabiat tomoshabinlarga o'z yodgorligini sovg'a qilishni istamayapti. Yo'q, siz bu odamni yo'q qilmaysiz, siz cho'chqasiz! Downs bo'ylab bir qarashda kambag'al G'arbiy Kennett Long Barrou raqamlar bilan to'lib toshgan va men Riannon o'zining ajoyib hisobini o'qiyotganda nimani anglatishini aniq bilaman. Ammo buyuk Boyna qabrlari qazilmaganida nima bo'lardi? Qarang, Tornboro Xengs bilan nima sodir bo'ldi, uni hech kim tijorat kompaniyasi jimgina sotib oldi. Afsuski, bu bevafo dunyoda qimmatbaho xazinalarni "yolg'iz" qoldirib bo'lmaydi, degan umid borki, hamma narsa avvalgidek qoladi. Odamlar, ertami -kechmi, abadiy "foyda" ni o'ylab, foyda ko'radi. Menimcha, Sharqiy Kennetni alohida yodgorlik va "biz tomosha qilyapmiz" degan xabarni nishonlash kerak. U hech qachon uyda yashiringan WKLBning go'zal singlisi bo'lish uchun mo'ljallanmagan. Albatta?

Qani, bu ajoyib tashrif edi, deb ayta olaman, lekin yaqin atrofdagi tezyurar yig'ilishidan (men sizni o'g'irlamayman!) Shovqin daraxtlar bilan bir muddat raqobatlashdi. Jahon merosi hududining markazida? Boshqa hech kimga maymunni bera olmaydigan odamlarga nima bo'ladi? Tannoy qaysi muppet "g'alaba qozongani" ni e'lon qilganda va ularning hammasi uyga qaytganida, kontrast yaxshi. Riannonning eslatmalariga ko'ra, men qo'rg'onning o'zi haqida aytmoqchi bo'lganlarim bor edi, faqat bir juft o'g'irlovchidan tashqari, yozda katta tepalikni kolonizatsiya qilgan qichitqi o'tlar (2) bilan jasorat qilish yaxshidir. Daraxtlar, ayniqsa, SW uchun ekinzor ichida o'ralgan juda katta qurg'oning old qismi sifatida harakat qilganda, juda ko'p atmosfera qo'shadi. Xaritaga ko'ra, uzun qurg'oning narigi tomonida yana bir misol bor.

Sayt bo'ylab sayr qilish Sharqiy Kennetning qanchalik katta ekanligini ta'kidlaydi. Hech qachon qazib olinadimi? Uni "uy" deb ataydigan ko'plab hayvonlardan tashqari. Bu hayajonli istiqbol, garchi keyin hech qachon avvalgidek bo'lmaydi, shunday emasmi? Keyin yana hozirgi holat asl quruvchilarning niyati emasdek tuyuladi. Ko'rinib turganidek, bu muhim narsa kamdan -kam odamlarning shaxsiy zavqlanishi uchun yashirilmagan! Ha, siz to'pga borasiz! EKLB taniqli dizayner M Downs tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan oq bo'rdan yasalgan eksklyuziv libos kiyadi. do'konlarda yana olti ming yil davomida mavjud emas.

Siz bu erga borganingizda ham, bu joyning hayratlanarli darajada baland ekanligini ko'rishingiz mumkin. Men bu optik xayol deb o'yladim, yaqinlashib qolgunimcha va keyin bunga ishonishim kerak edi. Siz yo'l bo'ylab ketayotganingizda, kurka sizning ustingizda porlab turadi. Ammo yaqinlashib kelganda, u yaqinroq bo'lgan orqa tomonga o'xshaydi, u G'arbiy Kennettning jozibali jabhasi va Silberi tepaligidan qochadi. Qishki cho'l etishmasligi bilan men kurqaning tepasi bo'ylab yura olardim, u oxirigacha balandroq va boshpana. Bu ancha yopiq tuyg'uga ega. Atrofdagi osmon chizig'i bitta darajadagi amfiteatr effektiga ega. Qizig'i shundaki, osmon chizig'i bir -biriga yaqin emas, ba'zilari ancha uzoqdagi landshaftlardan iborat, lekin bu doimiy chiziqni berish uchun hammasi bir -biriga to'g'ri keladi. Bu boshqa joyning ochiq hissiyotidan mutlaqo farq qiladi, uzoqdan qarashlari sizni har xil joylarga olib boradi! ularni taniganingizda.

Haqiqatan ham, oxirigacha juda sokin edi. U buruqlar bilan qoplangan. Hamma joyda bo'r va nayzali naychalar bo'laklari (miltiq o'qlari kabi) bor. Qarshimdagi teshiklardan biridan quyon chiqib ketdi va kim ko'proq qo'rqib ketganini bilmayman. Keklik pastda dalada g'o'ldiradi, lekin aksincha, xuddi dengiz kabi uzoqdagi shovqin edi. Mening pishloqlarim atmosferani chindan ham buzdi. Menga bir nechta olxo'ri va kichkina salyangoz qobig'ining notekis kindik teshiklari bo'lgan buzilgan yozuv yoqdi.

Qaytish yo'lida (osmonga siluet qo'yilgan yana bir aybdorlikdan keyin) "Oq ot" yo'lida ko'riladigan va eshitiladigan ko'plab sariq zarbachilar bor edi. Agar siz to'g'ridan -to'g'ri pastga borishni davom ettirsangiz, yo'l Kennetni kesib o'tgan joydan chiqadi. Ko'rish juda hayratlanarli, bug 'oqimi bilan tebranayotgan o'simliklari bilan kristalli toza bo'r oqimi. Men cherkov yaqinida to'xtagan joyga qaytib borishning eng yaxshi usuli edi.

Biz yurgan tomondan Sharqiy Kennet Long Barrou birdan paydo bo'lib tuyuldi - uni to'liq suratga olish uchun juda katta, hozir bargsiz olxa daraxtlari uni ushlab turibdi. Porsuq shikastlanishidan tashqari, u saqlanib qoladi, biz hammamiz shunday qolishiga umid qilgandik. U o'z sirlarini, atmosferasini va ajralish tuyg'usini uzoq saqlasin.

[Avebury peyzaji bo'yicha tajribasi va uni baham ko'rishga tayyorligi uchun PeteGga yana bir bor minnatdorchilik bildiraman]

Qisqa masofadan so'ng, chap tomondagi uzun tepa turgan dalaning "tepa" qirrasi bo'ylab o'sib chiqqan, lekin aniq yo'l paydo bo'ladi.

Yo'l dala maydoniga etib borganida, na to'siq, na panjara bor edi va o'rimning keng, chuqur va aniq traktor izlari bor edi.

Men qaror qildim, agar kimdir ma'qullamasa, agar men shosha -pisha harakat qilsam, meni sezish ehtimoli juda past edi. (Men hozir o'qiganman, ruxsat so'rash yaxshidir, shuning uchun agar yana borsam, albatta ruxsat beraman!)

Ikki daqiqadan so'ng men o'rmonning shimoli -g'arbiy uchida, daraxtlar orasida edim. Reaching the top I soon found my way barred by impenetrable undergrowth thick with stinging nettles. I don't think I could've forced my way through, even if I hadn't been wearing shorts, As it was – no way!

I made my way back down to the foot of the barrow and turned right, along it's north east side. It was a struggle to make my way without damaging the crop and without stinging myself to death on the nettles that also line the edge of the barrow.

Reaching the south west end of the long barrow I found that there is actually some space to stand and look at this end. This 'felt' like the 'front' of the barrow, though I have no idea whether it is or not.

I couldn't see the chamber stones that apparently protrude at this end, but the vegetation was rampant, and once again of the stinging kind. Winter visit?


The Excavation of the West Kennet Long Barrow: 1955–6

1 G. E. Daniel, Prehistoric Chamber Tombs of England and Wales (1950), 227, with refs.

2 Report by Professor W. J. Arkell, Sidgwick Museum, Cambridge. Thurnam records a whetstone from the secondary filling made of Pennant Sandstone from the valley of the Bristol Avon.

3 The human remains have been reported on by Professor L. H. Wells, formerly of the University of Edinburgh and now of the University of Cape Town.

4 Illustrated in J. F. S. Stone, Wessex Before the Celts (1958), pl. 14. Other illustrations of West Kennet are in pls. 6-8.

5 In an unpublished thesis.

6 G. E. Daniel, Proc. Prehist. Soc., V (1939), 143.

7 S. Piggott, Neo. Cultures Brit. Isles (1954), fig. 25: contrast the Cotswold plans in fig. 20.

8 Wilts. Arch. Mag., Lll (1947), 57, where I suggested that such tombs might ‘stand nearer to the main stream of ideas in tomb architecture than the rather specialized forms of the Cotswolds’. West Kennet now provides welcome confirmation of this view.


West Kennet Long Barrow - History

We drove down to the next layby and for once, I booted up, knowing that there was a goodly walk ahead of us through the wet landscape. In front of us, Silbury Hill rose from its bed where once a mirrored lake had held its reflection. From here the sheer scale of the man-made mound begins to become apparent, yet it is not until you stand at its feet that you really appreciate the size of the hill. But we were not going there, not yet. The Mountain of the Sun could wait… our path would first lead us beneath the earth.

Once through the gate that separates the fields from the road and there is another shift. With each site, we go deeper further from constraining time and closer to another mode of being … a purity of purpose, perhaps, that guided the hands of the makers and the footsteps of those who came to visit their dead. We pass the fairy tree… hollowed, with a gateway at its feet and votive ribbons streaming from its branches. Where now do we stand in time? It is hard to tell. Present, yet distant from our world. Creatures clothed in modern apparel and most ancient flesh, we cross the bridge over the Kennet and begin the gentle climb towards the hilltop, following where feet have passed since before Stonehenge was begun.

On either side of us the fields stretch away into the distance, scarlet with wild poppies, green with crops. They seem to echo both our personal transience and collective history. The wild and the tamed, something that lives within all of us. Then, as we near the crest of the hill, the looming face of West Kennet long barrow gnarled stone, bones of earth, placed there by human hand to guard the bones of our kin.

West Kennet long barrow was begun around 5,600 years ago, 400 years before the first earth was cut at Stonehenge. The whole mound is around 35 feet long, one of the longest surviving, and from the air resembles the shape of a stone axe head. It is only the front of the mound that was used, however. Across the entrance stones up to seven feet high bar the entrance to the forecourt.


Within the mound itself, a central corridor leads to the main chamber. On either side, two pairs of chambers, precisely constructed. As with all these sites the geometry is astounding. We have thought of the folk of the Neolithic period as being little better than unlettered savages, yet here again is evidence that the idea is far from the truth. Even without the incredible feat of cooperation and engineering it took to build the barrow, the five chambers all fit within an isosceles triangle whose perpendicular axis is twice that of the base. There are other notable features too. Some of which we would experience for ourselves.

The barrow was, it is thought, in use for around a thousand years. Excavations found burials of 46 individuals of all ages, from the youngest to the oldest. Those who were found all died within three decades. Not all the bones were there, some of the disarticulated skeletons were missing long bones and skulls, which adds to the theory that bones were sorted and removed for special occasions. Perhaps they were brought back to their own family’s hearthfire.

There would not have been the same fear of death in those far off days when it was ever present. Nor was there fear of hellfire so long before Christianity came into being. The seasonal, cyclical nature of life and death was written in the very earth and it was to the womb of earth that the dead were returned. Who knows if the old ones hoped for a rebirth into this world or another? Either way, it seems certain from the traces that remain carved in earth and stone that the land was the womb from when these cycles came into the world… a place of transition.

The barrow was sealed, perhaps many times, unsealed for each new ritual, until it was carefully filled with earth and fragments of pottery, including some of the finest pottery that has been found, bones, beads and tools. It is thought the earth was brought from a mortuary site nearby, perhaps enhancing its sacredness to its people.

The place has a gentle, loving feel… and although a place of death, it is alive. There are faces in the stones, guardians, perhaps. And though it might be argued that man sees faces in the most abstract of patterns and that therefore these faces are random constructs, we are not so sure. That they worked the stone is unarguable. The shaping of hands is visible in the stones of the doorway. If we can see the faces… why not our ancestors who saw the life in the land with a clearer eye than we do today? Could they not have chosen these stones for the life within?

And there was life within… two pairs of swallows, nesting in the barrow, flying fearlessly past the faces of our little party as we entered the cool, green darkness. It was a delightful encounter, closer than I, for one, have ever been to swallows and they showed no sign of anything other than resigned patience at the invasion of their home… as if they knew they were under no threat except being captured on camera. There was a rightness in their acceptance of us and our wonder at their presence.

We each took some time in the barrow. Little was said. It is one of those places. Then, when other visitors had departed, we joined in impromptu meditation in the barrow, hand in hand, each calling up from within whatever note rose unbidden to our lips, feeling our way through chant into a reality where the stone answered, and sang with us, vibrating with sound and unseen light.

That this dark cavern is a place of light is indisputable for me. Incised, by man or nature, something that looks incredibly like a huge scratch dial, like those found within our churches, adorns one of the major stones of the inner chamber. If a staff was placed within the central indentation, what would the shadow show … for there is more than that, though we would have needed to be there for an equinox sunrise to see the play of a single beam of light across the chamber.

As we took our leave, the swallows came to greet us, one perched upon a pointed stone, seemingly waiting for me to come close… within just a couple of feet. That eye to eye communion with a wild creature somehow felt like a final blessing from a sanctity older than any rite or dogma. A wordless acceptance and recognition for which there was nothing to do except be thankful and share a soundless joy.


Lanhill Long Barrow

Barrow hill near Chippenham.
Late Neolithic Chambered long barrow 3500 – 2500 BC.

Orientated west to east with a mound 190 feet by 90 feetwide and six feet high. A dummy entrance is situated 35 feet from the higher end. Then ends of the barrow were destroyed in the 1950’s. There are two chambers, covered on the north side and an impressive corbelled chamber visible on the south edge, some 20 bodies have been found. The barrow was formerly known as Hubbaslow ‘low’ being the Danish word for barrow.


The Cerne Giant: Landscape, Gods and the Stargate

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A groundbreaking work which finally demonstrates what the Giant represents, why he is positioned where he is on the landscape, and how he reflects not only the myths of the Ancients but also the heavens above. The Giant is connected with Lugh, Baal, Osiris, Bran, Hercules, Gwyn ap Nudd, and with the constellation Orion and a mythical Egyptian Stargate. The book also deals with landscape alignments and how the Giant is so perfectly positioned standing where he is how the Giant was changed in appearance ley lines phallicism and fertility folklore groundbreaking astronomical alignments a local landscape horse and other hill figures giants in folklore and myth other local sacred sites and megaliths all the possible candidates for the Giant’s identity and finally, how he can be an icon for today.

"The Cerne Giant: Landscape, Gods and the Stargate" is the latest book from the earth mysteries' most prolific author-publisher Peter Knight. It examines the world-famous chalk hill figure and pinpoints its astronomical connections with the local horizon. In addition to Orion, the giant's chosen identity, the hill figure's ritual landscape seems aligned quite specifically to Cygnus and the Milky Way's Dark Rift, which acted as a road or path to the sky-world. Peter has got these books off to a fine art now, and it comes well recommended from this camp."
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Silbury Hill, Enigmatic Mound

First let’s join our fellow tourists near the visitor car park, where one is greeted by a helpful, open air display board.

Fig. 4: Silbury Hill: visitors’ observation area with display board, summarizing results of centuries of archaeological investigation. (Photograph courtesy writer).

Fig. 5: Close up of display board artwork (Judith Dobie).

The three panels above show the initial stages in the Silbury construction, as inferred from the various tunneling and excavation operations, starting with the first (vertical) shaft in 1776, ending in most recent 2007 probing by English Heritage archaeologist Jim Leary and archaeological investigator David Field and their fellow researchers.

It may help to consult this writer’s own schematic cross-sectional diagrams. Beware: they are based on interpretation of sentences from archaeologists Leary and Field and are not to scale regarding relative dimensions, precise ordering of soil layers etc.

“Silbury 1” is the name of the first small mound made of layers of gravel and dark layers of turf and soil. “Silbury 2” was built up over this first mound, and was composed of chalk rubble and soil. “Silbury 3” was the final phase, wherein ditches were filled in, others were created, and the mound was finished off, creating a 60-degree sloping, pyramidal structure.

Fig. 6: Left: initial site with topsoil. Center: removal of topsoil. Right: Silbury 1 - adding heap of gravel. (Image courtesy writer)

The third diagram on the right corresponds with the first on the display board, showing the initial gravel mound. Note that the gravel was NOT deposited on original soil and turf, which had first been removed (see below for later use). Many questions stem from this revelation.

Why bother to remove the topsoil if one is building a mound, even if planning only a modest-size one initially?

Fig.7: The seemingly ever-more perplexing steps. Mounds upon mounds, and then pits dug in and backfilled. (Image courtesy writer)

In Figure 7 we see at left that the top soil has now been added back, together with turves—turf or sod — (some still green after 4,500 years!) and residents such as ants and other insects (as well still visible after 4,500 years!)

The center stage shows several more layers of diverse origin have been added on top, amongst which is a mysterious black addition (a dense black band shown above the grey topsoil, not necessarily its exact location among the new additions).

The end result is what the distinguished late British archaeologist Richard Atkinson, leader of the 1967 BBC investigation, described as a “layer cake” and other more colorful descriptions, and which Leary and Field refer to as the “organic mound”, a term replete with various associations and connotations, whether intended by the authors or not.

Then something even more unexpected, indeed extraordinary, took place.

On the right of Figure 7 are seen modest-size (approximately on meter or 3 feet in diameter) holes or pits which were made in the center and sides of the organic mound. They were then backfilled with what seems to be the same material!

Not content with having created one central mound studded with excavated pits, we then learn that numerous ‘satellite’ mounds were created around the central one. They too have excavated/refilled pits we’re told. Again, WHY?

Aerial view of Silbury Hill and the A4 road. ( CC BY-SA 2.0 )

Silbury 1 is described as the very heart of Silbury Hill.

The tricky part came when scouring Leary and Field’s book The Story of Silbury Hill for every scrap of information regarding those “darker” contributions to the “organic mound” that comprise Silbury 1 (not counting relocated turves).

Leary and Field make references to pits and mounds being sealed under dumps of different material that had been tipped on top. The soil had apparently been brought in from some distance, since the underlying material was chalk, not clay-with-flints. Next came more chalk, clay, gravel and more turves. However, the only theory for the enigmatic pits was that they were the “result of ceremonial activity on or around the mound.”


West Kennet Long Barrow

Barcha fotosuratlarni ko'rish

The British landscape is dotted with some 250 ancient long barrow tombs, elongated mounds used as burial chambers. The West Kennet Long Barrow is one of the largest and certainly the most accessible. To call it impressive does not do it justice.

The barrow was constructed over five millennia ago during the Neolithic period, around 3600 BCE, and archaeologists believe it was in use for about 1,000 years. It entombed the remains of least 46 people, including both cremated remains and unburnt bones.

During excavation, some of the skeletal remains were found disarticulated, with skulls and long bones missing. This has prompted the gruesome suggestion that the tomb was periodically opened so that bones could be removed for display. Many ancient artifacts like pottery, beads, and stone tools were also found in the tomb.

Built into a chalk ridge, the large grass-covered mound (when in use it would have been bare chalk) is about 10 feet high at its highest point, and 300 feet long. Inside is a 45-foot-long hollow passage with four chambers on the side and one at the end. These chambers are where the ancient remains were found.

The hollow chambers are usually freely accessible for visitors to walk through, making this long barrow quite unique among the bunch. Wandering inside can be quite a spooky experience, and is certainly not for the claustrophobic. The entrance is fronted by large stones (called sarsens), making for an impressive-looking facade.

The tomb is located in Wiltshire not far from two other mysterious ancient sites: Silbury Hill, the largest prehistoric mound in Europe, believed by some to be the burial place of a legendary king, and the Avebury henge, the world’s largest megalithic stone circle.

Borishdan oldin biling

You can access the long barrow from a lay-by on A4 (the main road from London to Bath), about a mile south of Avebury. You cannot miss it. It is on the lefthand side of the road when heading away from London.

Access to the inside of the tomb may sometime be limited while work is being done, so check out the National Trust website to be sure.


Videoni tomosha qiling: West Kennet long barrow tour. Avebury, England