Ser Richard Pole va Margaret Polning uchinchi o'g'li Reginald Pole, ehtimol 1500 yil mart oyida Stourton qal'asida, Staffordshirda tug'ilgan. Uning onasi Klarens gersogi Jorj Plantagenet va uning rafiqasi Izabel Nevillning qizi edi. Uning bobosi Edvard IV va Richard III ning ukasi edi. Uning buvisi Uorikning 16 -gvardiyasi Richard Nevillning to'ng'ich qizi edi. (1)
Pol Canterbury Masih cherkovida ta'lim olgach, Magdalen kollejiga o'qishga kirdi. 1512 yilda Genrix VIII unga 12 funtlik pensiya to'ladi va keyingi yili sovg'ani takrorladi. 1518 yil 12 fevralda qirol unga Dorsetdagi Wimborne Minster dekanligini berdi. (2)
1521 yilda Pole qirolning 100 funtlik stipendiyasi bilan Padua universitetiga o'qishga kirdi. Bu davrda u Pietro Bembo, Gianmatteo Giberti, Jakopo Sadoleto va Janpietro Karafa bilan uchrashdi va ular bilan do'stlashdi. Pole 1524 va 1525 yillarda Rimga tashrif buyurdi. U 1527 yilda Angliyaga qaytdi.
Pol cherkovda bir qator muhim lavozimlarni egallagan va 1529 yil oktyabr oyida Genri Aragon Ketrin bilan ajrashgani haqida universitet shifokorlarining ijobiy fikrini tasdiqlash uchun Parijga yuborilgan. Tarixchi Jasper Ridli, Sorbonnada Genrixning ishi borasida bahslashish uchun o'zining buyuk intellektual qobiliyatlari va ilohiy bilimlaridan foydalanganini aytdi. "(3)
1531 yilning yozida Reginald Pole Genrixning ajrashishidan shubha qila boshladi. "Pole Genriga ajralish yo'lidagi siyosiy qiyinchiliklar, xususan vorislik va chet el knyazlarining xavfi to'g'risida tahlil qildi. Pol turli hikoyalarni aytib berdi va uning tarjimai hollari o'z fikrlarini aytishdan oldin nima qilganini qo'shdilar. Hech kim tasdiqlay olmaydi; faqat Pol, 1532 yilning yanvarida yoki fevralida Angliyani tark etgani aniq, ehtimol bu ishonchsiz ko'rinardi, ehtimol York arxiepiskopi ". (4)
1534 yil mart oyida Papa Klement VII Genrixning Anne Boleyn bilan nikohi haqiqiy emasligini e'lon qildi. Genri bunga javoban Papaning Angliyada hokimiyati yo'qligini e'lon qildi. 1534 yil noyabrda parlament ustunlik aktini qabul qildi. Bu Genriga "Angliya cherkovining oliy boshlig'i" unvonini berdi. Xiyonat to'g'risidagi qonun ham qabul qilindi, bu har qanday yo'l bilan, jumladan yozish va gapirish, Podshoh va uning merosxo'rlarini bid'at yoki zulmda ayblashga urinishni jinoyatga aylantirdi. Barcha sub'ektlarga buni qabul qilib, qasamyod qabul qilish buyurilgan. (5)
Ser Tomas More va Rochester episkopi Jon Fisher qasamyod qilishdan bosh tortdilar va London minorasida qamoqqa tashlandilar. Ko'proq Lambet saroyida arxiyepiskop Tomas Krenmer va Tomas Kromvel oldida chaqirilgan. Ko'proq Anne Boleynning bolalari taxtga o'tirishi mumkinligi haqida qasam ichganidan xursand bo'lishdi, lekin u qasam ichib, parlamentning oldingi barcha qonunlari haqiqiy deb e'lon qila olmadi. U "ruhimni abadiy la'natga solmasdan" papaning hokimiyatini inkor eta olmasdi. (6)
1534 yil 15 -iyunda Tomas Kromvelga Richmondning kuzatuvchi oilalari qasamyod qilishdan bosh tortgani haqida xabar berildi. Ikki kundan so'ng, ruhoniylarga to'la ikkita arava osib qo'yildi, chizildi va qirol hukmronligini inkor qilgani uchun chorakka bo'lindi. Bir necha kun o'tgach, xuddi shu jinoyati uchun bir guruh Kartus rohiblari qatl qilindi. "Ular tikka zanjirband qilingan va oziq -ovqatsiz va suvsiz o'lib ketishgan, o'z iflosliklarini yutib yuborishgan - bu londonliklarni dahshatga solgan. (7) Kromvel More ga aytganidek, u ko'rsatgan misol boshqa odamlarning qatl etilishiga olib keldi. Ko'proq javob berdi: "Men hech kimga yomonlik qilmayman. Men hech kimga zarar demayman, men hech qanday zarar ko'rmayman, lekin barchaga yaxshilik tilayman. Agar bu odamni tirik saqlash uchun etarli bo'lmasa, yaxshi niyat bilan men yashashni xohlamayman". (8)
1535 yil aprelda Londondagi Charterhouse Priory, Shimoliy Linkolnshirdagi Axholme Priory va Nottingemshirdagi Beauvale Priory kartfiy uylarining ustuvorligi qirolni Angliya cherkovining boshlig'i deb tan olishdan bosh tortdi. Ular 4 -may kuni Tyurnda osilgan, chizilgan va chorakka bo'lingan. (9)
1535 yil may oyida Papa Pol III episkop Jon Fisherni kardinal yaratdi. Bu Genrix VIIIni g'azablantirdi va u uni 22 iyun kuni etmish olti yoshida qatl qilishni buyurdi. Shokka tushgan odamlar qirolicha Annani o'limida ayblashdi va qisman shu sababdan ham uning farzandining o'lik tug'ilishi haqidagi xabar bostirildi, chunki odamlar buni Xudoning irodasining belgisi sifatida ko'rishgan. Enerning o'zi Fisherni qatl qilish kunida vijdon azobidan aziyat chekdi va "ruhini tinchlantirish" marosimiga qatnashdi. (10)
Genrix VIII Tomas Morga xiyonat qilganlikda ayblanish vaqti keldi deb qaror qildi. Sud Vestminster zalida bo'lib o'tdi. Qirol cherkov boshlig'i emasligini aytganini rad etdi, lekin u har doim bu savolga javob berishdan bosh tortganini va sukut hech qachon davlatga xiyonat qilolmasligini aytdi. Prokuratura uning 3-iyun kuni Tomas Kromvelga qilgan bayonotini keltirdi, u erda hukmronlik akti odamdan vijdoniga qarshi qasam ichishni yoki vatanga xiyonat qilgani uchun o'limni talab qilishni talab qiladigan ikki qirrali qilichga o'xshaganini ta'kidladi. (11)
Hukm hech qachon shubhalanmagan va Tomas Mor xoinlikda ayblangan. Lord Kansler Tomas Audli "o'lim jazosini berdi - qonun talab qiladigan to'liq hukm:" More osib qo'yilishi, tirikligida kesilishi, kastratsiya qilinishi, ichaklarining kesilishi va ko'z oldida yondirilishi, so'ng boshining boshi kesilishi "kerak edi. Minoraga olib kelinganida, Margaret Roper va uning o'g'li Jon uni quchoqlash uchun qo'riqchilar kordonini yorib o'tishdi. U vidolashuvdan so'ng, uzoqlashib ketgach, Margaret orqaga yugurdi, yana kordonni sindirib, yana quchoqladi. (12)
Jasper Ridli, muallifi Genrix VIII (1984): "Aynan Karfuziyaliklar va Baliqchilar va boshqalarning qatllari Polni ochiq maydonga chiqib, Genrixning eng katta dushmani bo'lishga qaror qilgan. U Genri o'qishi uchun minnatdorchilik bildirgan. Genrining maslahatchilari va matbuot kotiblari unga buni doimo eslatib turishardi, lekin u Xudoning oldidagi burchidan, o'z xayr -ehsonchisini Angliyada imon chempionlarini shahid qilgan qonli zolim sifatida qoralashini talab qilishiga tobora ko'proq ishonar edi. " (13)
Reginald Pol endi Genrix VIIIga muxolifat etakchisi sifatida ko'rilgan. Elchi Eustas Chapuys Polga malika Meri bilan turmush qurishni va Uelsda o'z oilasini qo'llab -quvvatlashini taklif qildi. Genrini eng ko'p tashvishga solgan bu sulolaviy tahdid edi. 1536 yilda Pole "Cherkov birligini himoya qilish" ni yozdi. Polning ta'kidlashicha, Evropaning etakchisi Papada yashaydi, unga hamma ma'naviy va vaqtinchalik narsalar tegishli bo'lishi kerak. (14) Shuningdek, Tomas More va Jon Fisherning juda ijobiy rasmini taqdim etdi (uning tarjimai holi buni hagiografiya deb ta'riflaydi). Kitob Genrixni tavba qilishga chaqirdi. (15)
1536 yil 22 -dekabrda Polni Papa Pol III kardinal qilib tayinlagan va Papa Legati etib tayinlagan, lekin u ruhoniy bo'lmagan. Papa uni imperator Charlz Vni turklarga qarshi urushidan voz kechishga va Angliyaga bostirib kirishga ko'ndirishga yoki hech bo'lmaganda Gollandiyadagi bo'ysunuvchilariga Angliya bilan savdo qilishni taqiqlashga yubordi. (16)
Uning haqiqiy vazifasi inoyat hajiga yordam berish edi. Unga isyonchilarga mablag 'etkazib berishga ruxsat berildi va Papa Flandriyada pul yig'ish uchun Polga to'liq papalik akkreditivini berdi. Jefri Moorxausning ta'kidlashicha: "Pol ... o'z vatanining ishlariga xorijiy aralashuvni ochiqdan -ochiq qo'llab -quvvatladi va inglizlar o'z qirollariga qarshi qurol ko'tarish uchun to'liq haqli bo'lishini da'vo qilishdi. Genri, albatta, g'azablanib, qutbni o'ziga jalb qilish uchun qo'lidan kelganini qildi. Angliyaga qaytib, u erda, shubhasiz, vatanga xiyonat qilishda ayblangan bo'lardi, lekin Pol hech bo'lmaganda dunyoviy edi va uning ahvoli og'irligini anglab yetdi. (17)
Agar siz ushbu maqolani foydali deb bilsangiz, iltimos, Reddit kabi veb -saytlarda baham ko'ring. Siz Jon Simkinni Twitter, Google+ va Facebook -da kuzatishingiz yoki har oylik axborot byulletenimizga obuna bo'lishingiz mumkin.
Genrix VIII endi Reginaldning akasi Ser Jefri Polni hibsga olishni buyurdi. U oilaviy faoliyati haqida bilganlarini oshkor qildi. Natijada, uning akasi Genri Pol 1539 yilning yanvarida hibsga olingan va qatl etilgan. To'rt oy o'tgach, Margaret Pol ham hibsga olingan. Xoinlikda ayblanib, aybini tan olgan Jefri afv etilib, unga ozodlik berildi. (18)
Margaretni so'roq qilish 12 -noyabrda boshlangan va uni Sautgempton shtatining Uilyam Fitsvilliam va Eli episkopi Tomas Gudrich olib borishgan. Xiyonatkorlikda aybsiz, u barcha savollarga aniq va aniq javoblar bilan javob berdi. (19) Antonia Freyzer, muallifi Genrix VIII ning olti xotini (1992) ta'kidlashicha, Margaret Pole aslida o'g'lining "Cherkov birligini himoya qilish" kitobini qoralovchi xatlarni yozgan. Biroq, "xizmatkorlarning g'iybatlari uning so'roq qilinishini oqlash uchun qilingan". (20) Unga qarshi yagona dalil shundaki, u o'z xizmatchilariga inglizcha Injilni o'qishni taqiqlagan va bir marta xatni yoqib yuborganini ko'rgan. (21)
1539 yil noyabr oyida Margaret Pole London minorasiga yuborildi. Uning ishi parlamentda muhokama qilingan. Tomas Kromvell Reginald Pole malika Maryamga uylanmoqchi ekanligini isbotlovchi dalillarni keltirdi. Avvaliga Genrix VIII Margaret bilan yaxshi muomala qilib, 13 6s to'ladi. 8d. o'zi va nabirasi Genrining taomlari uchun bir oy. Bundan tashqari, unga 18d to'langan kutib turgan ayolning tashrifiga ruxsat berildi. bir hafta. (22)
Qirolicha Ketrin Xovard Margaretning ishi bilan qiziqdi. "O'sha bahorda Ketrin minorada hibsga olingan uchta odamning ahvolidan hayajonga tushganini ko'rdi. Birinchisi, qarilik tanasini qishdan qaqragan qishdan himoya qilish uchun deyarli ikki yil davomida kiyim -kechak va isitma bilan ta'minlanmagan Solsberi grafinasi Margaret Pol edi. Buni bilgach, qirolicha 1-mart kuni tikuvchisini ko'rdi va unga xonim Selsberiga yuboriladigan kiyimlarni tikishni buyurdi: tungi ko'ylak, kaput va old kiyim, to'rt juft shlang, to'rt juft Poyafzal va bir juft tufli. Qirolning ruxsati bilan Ketrin bu narsalarning hammasini shaxsiy sumkasidan to'lab berdi. (23)
Genri 1541 yilning boshlarida Sir Jon Nevill boshchiligida shimolda ko'tarilish bilan dushmanlik qila boshladi. U Margaret muxolifatning boshi ekaniga amin bo'ldi. Garchi u taxtga haqli da'vogar bo'lsa -da, o'zi hech qachon uni egallash istagini bildirmagan. 68 yoshida u bola tug'ish yoshidan ham o'tib ketgan va shuning uchun qirol uchun hech qanday xavf tug'dirmagan.
1541 yil 28 -mayda Genri Solsberi grafinasi Margaret Polni qatl qilishni buyurdi. Antoniya Freyzer: "Bu shohning xohishi bilan qilingan eng jirkanch vahshiylik deb da'vo qilishi mumkin ... Uning haqiqiy jinoyati, albatta, Papaning tarafini olgan va qirolning qasosini olmagan odamning onasi bo'lish edi" . " (24) Alison Vayr ham bunga qo'shiladi va buni "Genrix hukmronligining eng yomon vahshiyliklaridan biri" deb ataydi. (25) U iskala oldiga kelganida, u jallodga hech qanday sud qilinmaganini aytib, blokka boshini qo'ymasligini aytdi. Jallod bunday paytlarda odatdagidek ishlatilmagan, yosh va tajribasiz edi. U boshini olib tashlashdan oldin bir necha daqiqa davomida uning boshi va bo'ynini sindirib tashlagan. (26)
Uning o'limi haqidagi xabarni eshitgach, uning o'g'li Reginald Pol o'zining "momaqaldiroqli" kotibiga u hozir shahidning mag'rur o'g'li ekanligini va bir soatcha uning shkafiga g'oyib bo'lganini, "keyin avvalgidek quvnoq bo'lib chiqdi" deb e'lon qildi. Ma'lum bo'lishicha, Pole shunday izoh bergan: "Quvnoq bo'laylik. Endi osmonda yana bitta homiyimiz bor". (27)
Genrix VIII 1547 yil 28 yanvarda vafot etdi. Uning o'g'li Edvard atigi to'qqiz yoshda edi va hukmronlik qilish uchun juda yosh edi. Genri o'z irodasida Edvard VIga yangi qirollikni boshqarishda yordam berish uchun 16 zodagon va cherkov a'zosidan iborat Regensiya Kengashini nomzod qilib ko'rsatdi. Ko'p o'tmay, amakisi Somerset gersogi Edvard Seymur hukumatning etakchi arbobi sifatida paydo bo'ldi va unga lord himoyachisi unvoni berildi. (28) Reginald Pole Seymur bilan muzokaralarga kirishdi, lekin oxir -oqibat Angliyaga qaytishdan bosh tortdi. (29)
Somerset gersogi protestant edi va u tez orada Angliya cherkovini o'zgartira boshladi. Bunga ingliz tilida ibodat kitobining kiritilishi va ruhoniylarning oila qurishiga ruxsat berish to'g'risidagi qaror kiritilgan. Dinning katolik cherkovi bilan bog'liq bo'lgan tomonlarini yo'q qilishga urinishdi, masalan, cherkovlarda vitray oynalarni olib tashlash va diniy devor rasmlarini yo'q qilish. Somerset, Eduard VI ning protestant sifatida ta'lim olganiga ishonch hosil qildi, chunki u hukmronlik qilish uchun voyaga etganida protestant dinini qo'llab -quvvatlash siyosatini davom ettiradi deb umid qilgandi.
1552 yil aprelda Eduard VI kasal bo'lib qoldi, unga dastlab chechak, keyinchalik qizamiq tashxisi qo'yildi. U hayratlanarli darajada sog'ayib ketdi va singlisi Yelizavetaga hech qachon o'zini yaxshi his qilmaganini yozdi. Biroq, dekabr oyida yo'tal paydo bo'ldi. Elizabet ukasini ko'rishni so'radi, lekin xo'jayin himoyachisi Jon Dadli bu juda xavfli ekanligini aytdi. 1553 yil fevral oyida shifokorlari uning sil kasalligi bilan og'riganiga ishonishdi. Mart oyida Venetsiyalik elchi uni ko'rdi va Edvard hali ham chiroyli bo'lsa -da, o'layotganini aytdi. (30)
1553 yil 6 -iyulda Edvard vafot etganda, yana bir protestant Ledi Jeyn Greyni taxtga o'tirishga urinishdi. Bu muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi va Aragon Ketrinning qizi Meri malika bo'ldi. Reginald Pole Maryamning ispaniyalik Filippga uylanish taklifiga roziligini bildirganida qo'llab -quvvatladi. (31)
1554 yil noyabr oyida Reginald Pole surgundan qaytib, Kenterberi arxiyepiskopi bo'ldi. U Maryamning katolik cherkoviga bo'lgan sadoqati bilan o'rtoqlashdi va Angliyaning Rim bilan to'liq aloqaga qaytishini xohladi. Pol va episkop Stiven Gardiner, uning lord -kantsleri, parlamentni bid'atga qarshi oldingi choralarni qayta tiklashga ko'ndirdi. Genrix VIII va Edvard VI davrida ular bekor qilingan. (32) Bu 1555 yil yanvarda qabul qilingan.
Pol va Gardiner bir necha erta yonish boshqa bid'atchilarni jim turishdan ogohlantiradi, deb ishonishgan. Aytishlaricha, bitta kuyish mingdan ziyod va'zdan qimmatroq. Biroq, bunday emas edi. Keyingi uch yil ichida qariyb 300 erkak va ayol yonib ketdi. Bunga Londonda yashovchi 112 kishi kirgan. Ularning tergovchilari bergan asosiy savol: "Siz qurbongohning marosimiga qanday deysiz? Agar ular Masihning tanasi va qoni jismoniy va ruhiy jihatdan non va sharobda mavjudligiga ishonmaganlarida, ular bid'at uchun hukm qilingan edilar." 33)
Reginald Pole Edvard VI bosh arxiyepiskopi Tomas Krenmer, episkop Nikolas Ridli va episkop Xyu Latimer boshchiligidagi etakchi cherkov xodimlarini hibsga olishni uyushtirdi. Bishop Ridli sudga kelganda, u o'z ishini ko'rib chiqish uchun tayinlangan sudyaga hurmat belgisi sifatida qalpog'ini boshidan ko'tarib qo'ydi, lekin arxiyepiskop Polning ismi tilga olinsa, u boshidagi qalpog'ini almashtirdi. Ridlining aytishicha, u o'qishga va qirollik qoni tufayli Polga erkak sifatida hurmat bajo keltiradi, lekin uni Papa merosi sifatida tabriklamaydi. (34)
1555 yil noyabr oyida Kranmer qirolicha Maryamga xat yozib, uni Angliya cherkovi ustidan qirollik ustunligini tasdiqlashga va himoya qilishga va Rim episkopi hukmronligiga bo'ysunmaslikka chaqirdi. (35) Meri xatni olganida, u bid'atchining xatini o'qishni, hatto olishni gunoh deb bilishini aytdi va xatni Krenmerga javob berish uchun arxiepiskop Reginald Polga topshirdi. "Kraliçaga, qirolicha chet el papasiga qarshi qirollik ustunligini tasdiqlash uchun murojaat qilganidan keyin, Rim Legate episkopidan, qirolicha unga javob berishni so'raganligi haqidagi xabarni olishdan ko'ra, bundan ko'ra og'riqliroq narsa bo'lishi mumkin emas edi. Kranmerning unga maktubi. " (36)
Aytilishicha, endi Reginald Pole ingliz cherkovini deyarli to'liq nazorat qilgan. "Uning energiyasining katta qismi cherkovning moliyaviy ahvolini va uning huquqiy mavqeini tiklashga borishni davom ettirdi, garchi u ibodat yoki ta'limotni e'tiborsiz qoldirmasa ham: u ayniqsa monastirlikni, ayniqsa Benediktlarning tiklanishidan manfaatdor edi". (37) Jon Foks Polni papachi, deb da'vo qiladi, lekin episkop Edmund Bonner kabi "qonli va shafqatsiz papachilarning hech biri". (38)
Arxiyepiskop Reginald Pole 1558 yil 17 -noyabrda vafot etdi.
Aynan Karf va Fisher va boshqalarning qatllari Polni ochiq maydonga chiqib, Genrixning eng katta dushmani bo'lishga qaror qilgan. Ammo u borgan sari ko'proq ishonch hosil qila boshladi, chunki Xudo oldidagi burch uning xayrixohini Angliyada imon chempionlarini shahid qilgan qonli zolim sifatida qoralashni talab qiladi.
Margaret Polning janubiy qirg'og'idagi mulklarining strategik mavqei, 1539 yildagi bostirib kirish tahdidi va unda Reginald qutb ishtirok etgani, uning Genrix VIII bilan bo'lgan keskin munosabatlari afv etish imkoniyatini istisno qildi .... 1541 yilda shimolda ko'tarilgan Ser Jon Nevill, qirol hukmronligiga dushmanlik bilan va Reginaldning onasini qutqarish rejalari ham o'z hissasini qo'shgan bo'lar edi.
Inoyat ziyoratlari (Javob sharhi)
Shahzoda Artur va Ketrin Aragonning nikohi (Javob sharhi)
Genrix VII: Aqlli yoki yovuz hukmdor? (Javob sharhi)
Anne Boleyn - diniy islohotchi (javob izohi)
Anne Boleynning o'ng qo'lida oltita barmog'i bo'lganmi? Katolik targ'ibotini o'rganish (javob izohi)
Nega Genrix VIIIning Anne Boleynga uylanishiga ayollar dushmanlik qilishdi? (Javob sharhi)
Elizabet Barton va Genrix VIII (Javob sharhi)
Margaret Cheyneyning qatl qilinishi (Javob sharhi)
Robert Aske (Javob sharhi)
Monastirlarning tarqatib yuborilishi (javob izohi)
Joan Bocher - anabaptist (javob izohi)
Anne Askew - qoziqda yonib ketgan (javob izohi)
Tudor Angliyada qashshoqlik (Javob sharhi)
Nega qirolicha Yelizaveta turmushga chiqmadi? (Javob sharhi)
Genrix VIII (Javob sharhi)
Frensis Uolsingem - Kodlar va kodni buzish (Javob sharhi)
Meri Tudor va bid'atchilar (Javob sharhi)
Ser Tomas More: Azizmi yoki gunohkormi? (Javob sharhi)
Xans Xolbeynning san'ati va diniy targ'iboti (Javob sharhi)
Xans Xolbeyn va Genrix VIII (Javob sharhi)
1517 yil 1 -may g'alayonlari: tarixchilar nima bo'lganini qaerdan bilishadi? (Javob sharhi)
(1) Hazel Pirs, Margaret Pol: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)
(2) T. F. Mayer, Richard Pol: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)
(3) Jasper Ridli, Genrix VIII (1984) 282 -bet
(4) T. Mayer, Richard Pol: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)
(5) Rojer Lokyer, Tudor va Styuart Britaniya (1985) 43-44 betlar
(6) Piter Akroyd, Tudorlar (2012) 82 -bet
(7) Alison Veyr, Genrix VIII ning olti xotini (2007) 281 -bet
(8) Piter Akroyd, Tudorlar (2012) 87 -bet
(9) Jasper Ridli, Davlat arbobi va fanatik (1982) 277 -bet
(10) Alison Veyr, Genrix VIII ning olti xotini (2007) 281 -bet
(11) Jasper Ridli, Davlat arbobi va fanatik (1982) 279 -bet
(12) Jasper Ridli, Davlat arbobi va fanatik (1982) 282 -bet
(13) Jasper Ridli, Genrix VIII (1984) 282 -bet
(14) Jefri Moorxaus, Inoyat ziyoratgohi (2002) 184 -bet
(15) T. Mayer, Richard Pol: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)
(16) Jasper Ridli, Qonli Maryam shahidlari (2002) 23 -bet
(17) Jefri Murxaus, Inoyat ziyoratgohi (2002) 185 -bet
(18) Piter Akroyd, Tudorlar (2012) 135 -bet
(19) Hazel Pirs, Margaret Pol: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)
(20) Antoniya Freyzer, Genrix VIII ning olti xotini (1992) 294 -bet
(21) Jasper Ridli, Genrix VIII (1984) 351 -bet
(22) Hazel Pirs, Margaret Pol: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)
(23) Alison Veyr, Genrix VIII ning olti xotini (2007) 439 -bet
(24) Antoniya Freyzer, Genrix VIII ning olti xotini (1992) 342 -bet
(25) Alison Veyr, Genrix VIII ning olti xotini (2007) 441 -bet
(26) Piter Akroyd, Tudorlar (2012) 135 -bet
(27) Lodoviko Bekadelli, Kardinal Reginald Pole hayoti (1776) 155-156 betlar
(28) Filippa Jons, Elizabet: Bokira malikasi (2010) 46 -bet
(29) T. Mayer, Richard Pol: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)
(30) Deyl Xok, Edvard VI: Milliy biografiyaning Oksford lug'ati (2004-2014)
(31) T. Mayer, Richard Pol: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)
(32) Rojer Lokyer, Tudor va Styuart Britaniya (1985) 101 -bet
(33) Piter Akroyd, Tudorlar (2012) 270 -bet
(34) Jasper Ridli, Qonli Maryam shahidlari (2002) 112 -bet
(35) T. Mayer, Richard Pol: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)
(36) Jasper Ridli, Qonli Maryam shahidlari (2002) 127 -bet
(37) T. Mayer, Richard Pol: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)
(38) Jon Foks, Shahidlar kitobi (1563) 2014 yil nashrining 248 -beti.
Kardinal Reginald qutb
Angliya qiroli Genrix VIIIning birinchi xotini, Aragon malikasi Ketrin bilan ajrashishi afsonaviy nisbatdagi mashhur dostondir. Kamdan -kam muhokama qilinadigan ushbu tadbirning asosiy ishtirokchisi qirolning amakivachchasi Reginald Polning oilaviy munosabatlari edi. Reginald Polning erta hayoti qirollik uchun mos edi, saroyda shahzodalar va qirollar bilan tez -tez muloqot qilib turardi.  Uning o'zi onasi, Solsberi grafinasi Margaret orqali taxtga da'vogar bo'lgan.  Ajralish haqidagi xabar tarqalgach, Reginald Pole qirolga va uning xotinini "Buyuk masala" deb atash istagiga qarshi chiqdi. boshqa birov bo'lganidan ko'ra. Qirol Genrix VIII qutbning homiysi bo'lib, uni Italiyaga katolik cherkoviga o'qishga yuborgan.  Qirol "shaxsiy nazoratni o'z zimmasiga oldi va Reginald ta'limi uchun pul to'ladi" 
Qirol Genrix VIII xiyonat qilishda muhim rol o'ynagan bo'lardi, Reginald Pole nisbatan yaqin oila a'zosi edi. Polning onasi Margaret, Solsberi grafinasi qirol Genrix VIIIning onasi, Yorkli Yelizaveta birinchi amakivachchasi edi. Margaretning otasi Jorj, Klarens gersogi, qirol Edvard IV davrida xoin sifatida sudlangan.  Yorkli Yelizaveta XV asr oxirida qirol Eduard IV ning to'ng'ich qizi edi.  Bu ikki ayolning hayoti, bolalarining hayoti bilan chambarchas bog'liq edi.
Reginald Pole ajrashishga qarshi gapirganda, u xalqaro aloqalarga ega bo'lgan eng yomon dushmanni yaratdi va u xohlagan narsasini olish uchun cheksiz manbalarga o'xshardi. Reginald Pole qirolni qirolicha Ketrin bilan ajrashishni talab qilib, "Masihga tuhmat qilishda" aybladi.  Reginald Polega qarshi qasos olishning turli urinishlari muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchraganidan so'ng, qirol Genrix VIII Reginaldning onasi Margaretga, Solsberi grafinasiga qaradi. Bir qator xiyonat ayblovlaridan so'ng, qirol Genrix VIII Margaret, London minorasidagi Salisberi grafinasi va uning to'ng'ich o'g'li Genri Pole Lord Mountag qirolga qarshi fitna uyushtirgani uchun sekvestrlar.  Ona va o'g'il qirol Genrix VIII g'azabini boshini kesib, tojga xiyonat qilgani uchun jazosini kutib olishdi.  Keyinchalik Reginald Pole 1550 -yillar boshidagi voqealar haqida "birinchi bo'lib ajoyib va foydali bo'lib ko'rinadigan narsa ..." ni aks ettirdi. U haqiqatan ham yolg'onchi va halokatli edi. ” U umrining qolgan yillarini shohga xoin sifatida oilasining qulashi bilan bog'liq voqealarda aybdor his qilib, ularning o'limiga olib keldi. 
Ko'rinib turibdiki, qirol Genrix VIII tomonidan qutblar oilasi vayron qilinganidan ma'lum miqdordagi qasos olishgan. Bu shohga qarshi gapirgan boshqa hech kim qilichbozning taqdirini ular kabi kutmagan bo'lardi, degani emas. Aksincha, qirol Genrix VIII Reginald qutbini qidirib, uni o'ldirmoqchi bo'lgan, lekin oxir -oqibat muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchragan. Keyin, natija bo'lmaganda, qirol Margaret, Solsberi grafinasi va uning to'ng'ich o'g'li Genri Pole lord tog'liga faqat Reginald Pole bilan bo'lgan oilaviy munosabatlariga asoslangan xiyonat ayblovlarini qidirishga intildi.
Keyingi yillarda Reginald Pole kardinal qutb unvonini oldi.  Uning hayoti xristianlikdagi eng katta seysmik o'zgarish - protestant islohotiga to'g'ri keldi. U qat'iy rim -katolik bo'lib qolganda, u cherkovni isloh qilish yo'llarini izlardi.  Oxir -oqibat, Kardinal Polning mavqei shunchalik oshib ketdiki, Papalikning qo'li baland keldi. U ikkilanib turdi: «Balki bu noaniqlik uning papalik saylovini qabul qilishdan bosh tortgani bilan bog'liqdir ibodat uchun 1549 yil noyabrda [Papa] Pol III vafotidan keyin konklavda. er. 
Angliya qirollik oilasining oilaviy rishtalari Tudor yillarida, qirol Genrix VIII vafotidan keyin mashhurlik uchun kurashayotgan turli guruhlar bilan chuqur aloqada bo'lgan. Kardinal Reginald Pole qirol saroyida unchalik taniqli bo'lmagan bo'lsa -da, asosiy o'yinchi edi. Ba'zida Qirol hazratlari tomonidan juda ma'qul ko'rilgan, keyin esa o'sha Qirol qasos olish uchun Evropadan o'tib ketgan. Kardinal Reginald Polning hayoti 16 -asrda O'rta asrlar Evropasida katolik cherkovi, monarxiya va bu ikki ob'ektni bir -biriga bog'lab turuvchi aloqalar bilan bog'liq edi.
 Merfi, Jon. “Kardinal Reginald Pole: O'zini oqlash va imon masalalari. ” Qirollik tadqiqotlari jurnali 4, yo'q. 2 (2017): 180.
Qirolicha va kardinal: Meri I va Reginald Pol
Eamon Daffi Meri I va uning Canterbury arxiyepiskopi kardinal qutb o'rtasidagi munosabatlarni o'rganadi. Polning qirolichaga Genrix VIIIga bo'lgan munosabati va bid'atchilar bilan muomala qilish haqidagi maslahati, u "haqiqiy din" ni tiklashda, unga berilganidan ko'ra, baquvvatroq rol o'ynaganligini ko'rsatadi.
1558 yil 17-noyabr, ertalab soat oltidan ettigacha, kasal xonasida uyushtirilgan marosimda uy egasi ko'tarilganidan ko'p o'tmay, qirolicha Meri vafot etdi. O'sha kuni kechqurun soat yettilarga kelib, qirolichaning amakivachchasi, u ham Kanterberi arxiyepiskopi, kardinal Reginald Pole vafot etdi. Genrix VIII davrida Angliyada oilaviy aloqalar, qizg'in katoliklik va diniy kuchlar sifatida tutilishidan tashqari, qirolicha va kardinal o'rtasida qanday umumiylik bor edi? Kardinal Polning diniy shakllanishi ko'pincha insonparvarlik deb ta'riflanadi, bu uning zamonaviy katoliklikdagi eng zamonaviy ilm -fan va eng muhim ruhiy harakatlarga botishi uchun etarli darajada etarli bo'lmagan atama. U lotin va yunon tillarini yaxshi bilgan, ibroniy tilini yaxshi bilgan. Uning Angliyadagi ustozlari va do'stlari o'sha davrning eng yaxshi klassik va diniy ongini o'z ichiga olgan: Uilyam Latimer, Tomas Linakre, Jon Kolet va Tomas More.
Ushbu maqolani o'qishni davom ettirish uchun siz onlayn arxivga kirishni sotib olishingiz kerak bo'ladi.
Agar siz allaqachon kirishni sotib olgan bo'lsangiz yoki bosma va arxivga obuna bo'lsangiz, iltimos, ishonch hosil qiling kirgan.
Reginald kardinal qutb
Pole - Britaniya orollari tarixi davomida turli shakllarda paydo bo'lgan qadimgi ingliz familiyalaridan biri. Reginald, 1500 yilda tug'ilgan, tez tayinlangan ruhoniy bo'lishdan Kardinalga, so'ngra Kanterberi arxiyepiskopiga ko'tarildi.
U arxiyepiskop bo'lishi mumkin edi va/yoki King, chunki u Solsberi grafinasi bo'lgan onasi orqali monarxiyaga da'vogar Yorkistlarning kuchli da'vosiga ega edi. Aytgancha, chalkashtirib yuborish juda oson de la Pole bilan Qutb, chunki bu ikki taniqli Plantagenet oilalari o'rtasida yaqin qon munosabatlari mavjud.
Polni diqqat bilan kuzatib turishardi chet ellik hukmdorlar ingliz protestant islohoti va hokimiyatga o'zining hisoblangan ko'tarilishi paytida ikkita muhim sababga ko'ra. Birinchidan, uning yuqori tug'ilishi, ikkinchisi - kuchli katoliklik. Masalan, Frantsiya va Ispaniya undan deyarli ko'z uzmaydilar.
1532 yilda u Angliyadan chiqib, chet elda yashashga qaror qildi: bu oqilona harakat edi, chunki Genrix VIII qirol edi va Tomas Kromvel, Genrixning bosh maslahatchisi va vaziri, Rim -katoliklarning taxtga munosib da'vosi borligini xohlamagan, hatto tirik Bundan tashqari, Reginald qirolining oilaviy va diniy siyosatiga umuman qo'shilmagan. Qit'ada u kardinalga aylandi (1536 yilda) va Frantsiya va Ispaniyani katoliklik nomidan Angliya bilan urushga chaqirdi. Bu xabar Genriga etkazilganida, u odatdagi Tudor g'azabini yengdi va siz "bolta!" Deyishingizdan oldin Reginaldning akasi va qadimgi onasini o'ldirdi.
Genri 1547 yilda vafot etgach, qutb Nordumberlend gersogi tomonidan qo'zg'atilgan Jeyn va Greydi xonimning boshi kesilgan o'smir er -xotin ustidan voqea sodir bo'lguncha, Nortumberlendning o'zi va Genrixning qizi Ketrin Aragondan - Meri Tudor, qirolicha Meri I sifatida o'rnatilguncha kutishdi. 1554 yilda u Angliyaga qaytib keldi, u erda yangi katolik ma'muriyati uni kutib oldi, u o'z qarshi islohotlarini amalga oshirdi. Canterbury arxiyepiskopi sifatida qayta o'rnatilgan Pol, qayta tiklangan katoliklikning poydevorini qo'yishni boshladi, lekin aytish kerakki, u Maryamning protestantlarni ta'qib qilishidan va hamma yoqilgan go'shtning yoqimsiz hididan mutlaqo norozi edi.
Reginald o'n oltinchi asrda tirik qolgan, kamdan -kam hisob -kitob qilmasdan katta kuchga ko'tarilgan tirik qolganlardan biri edi, bu odatda o'z hayotini yo'qotadi. Masalan, Thomases More va Cromwell, har biri lord -kantsler bo'ldi, shohdan keyin ikkinchi, lekin ikkalasi ham boshi bilan qisqartirilgan. Norfolk gersogi Genrix VIII yonida qalin va ingichka, lekin hatto tekis turishga muvaffaq bo'ldi u agar Genrix o'lmaganida edi, Norfolk minorada o'limni kutgan edi. Genrix VIIning o'g'li mutlaq monarxiya va mutlaq zulmga ishongan va uning parlamentlari odatda u bilan (ingliz va lotin tillarida) hamqadam bo'lishgan.
Reginald Polning ingliz katoliklari uchun qilgan yaxshi ishlari uning 1558 yilda erta vafot etishi bilan to'xtatildi.
Polning erta hayotini uning kotibi BEKCATELLI yozgan. Uni QUIRINI ning ajoyib to'plamida chop etish mumkin. Epistola Reginaldi Poli va boshqalar (5 jild, Brescia, 1744-57) ushbu materiallarga asos solingan Reginald Pole hayoti tarixi PHILIPPS tomonidan (Oksford, 1764), u hali ham o'z qiymatini saqlab qolgan. Zamonaviy biografiya - "MARTIN HAILE" (Miss Meri Xoll va#233) tarjimai holi. Reginald Pole hayoti (London, 1910), shuningdek, ZIMMERMANNni solishtiring, Caridnal qutb (Frayburg, 1893) ANTONI, Farishta kardinal (London, 1909) LIE, Reginald qutb (London, 1888) GAIRDNER tomonidan qutb haqidagi ajoyib hisobot berilgan Dikt. Nat. Biografiya. boshqa tomondan Pole hayoti HOOK'S Canterbury arxiyepiskoplari (London, 1860-84) ko'zga ko'rinadigan katoliklarga qarshi animus tomonidan buzilgan. Tomonidan juda ko'p foydali qo'shimcha ma'lumotlar taqdim etiladi Monumenta Concilii Tridentini, jild I va IV (Frayburg, 1901-04) va PASTORda, Geschichte der P äpste (Frayburg, 1908-10), IV, V. Shuningdek qarang "Tabletka", 28 avgust, 1909, p. 340. QUIRINI nashr etgan maktublar nashri to'liq emas va ko'pchilik MSda qolmoqda.
Genrix VIII buyurgan ko'plab qatllar orasida, eng dahshatli narsa, Solsberi grafinyai, oltmish etti yoshli Margaret Polning o'lik boshliq tomonidan iskala ustidan parchalanishi edi.
Margaretning hayoti boshidanoq fojia va zo'ravonlik bilan to'lgan edi: otasi, Klarens gersogi Jorj o'z akasi Edvard IV buyrug'i bilan qatl etilgan va uning sodda yosh ukasi Edvard, Uorik grafligi, Genrix VII buyrug'i bilan qatl qilinishidan oldin umrining ko'p qismini minorada o'tkazgan.
Shunday bo'lsa -da, Aragonlik Ketrinning do'sti va qizi Maryamning sevimli gubernatori Margaret, diniy qo'zg'olon va qo'zg'olon Margaret va uning oilasi inoyatidan voz kechmaguncha, baxtli taqdirga loyiq edi. Margaret qirol gertsogining qizi bo'lib tug'ilishidan vafotidan bir necha asrlar o'tgach, Margaret Pole: Minoradagi grafinya qal'aning ehtimoliy asirlaridan biri haqida hikoya qiladi.
Margaret Pole: minoradagi grafinya tarixning ikki davrini bosib o'tgan ajoyib ayol haqida hikoya qiladi. O'rta asrlar dunyosida tug'ilgan, amakisi Eduard IV hukmronligi davrida u sulola almashinuvidan omon qolgan va Genrix VII davrida gullab -yashnagan va o'z sulolasini qurgan. Genrix VIII hukmronligi davrida unga Solsberi grafinya unvoni berilgan va uning amakivachchasi uchun eng qimmatbaho mulk uning yagona qizi va vorisi Meri Tudor bo'lgan.
Jorj, Klarens gersogi – Margaretning otasi
Syuzan Xigginbotam Margaret va uning hikoyasini batafsil aytib beradi. Bolaligidan boshlab, otasi buzilgan va o'z akasi Edvard IV tomonidan ijro etilgan, o'quvchi Margaretning hayoti va oilasiga jalb qilingan. Gubernatorlikdan tortib to malika qadar, Minoradagi qamoq yillarining eng pasti va oxir -oqibat yoshligida qatl etilishi, uning kunlarini sokin pensiyada o'tkazishga ruxsat berilishi kerak edi. nabiralari tomonidan Syuzan Xigginbotam oilaviy fojia, milliy siyosat va diniy qo'zg'olon haqida ajoyib hikoya qiladi.
Margaret amakisi Richard III ning o'limi haqida nima deb o'ylaganini biz bilmaymiz, lekin u yangi qirol Genrixning buyrug'i bilan janubga ketayotib, qo'rquv bilan shunday qilgan bo'lsa kerak. Etim qolgan, eng yaqin qarindoshi o'zidan yosh bola bo'lganida, uning so'zini gapirishga qudratli erkak munosabatlari yo'q edi, ayollarga ham katta yordam bera olmasdi. Uning otasi buvisi, York gersoginyasi Sesili Nevill mag'lubiyatga uchragan qirolning onasi edi, uning onasi Buvik grafinasi Enn Buchamp Edvard IV va Edvard IV hukmronligi davrida o'z erlaridan mahrum bo'lgan edi. kelajak asosan o'zi ham, Angliyadagi boshqa odamlar ham uchrashmagan odamning qo'lida edi.
Qiziqarli va hamdardlik bilan aytganda, Syuzan Xigginbotamning hikoyasi - o'qish uchun quvonch. Bu sizni Margaret hayotiga jalb qiladi, uning qo'rquvlari va umidlari va o'z oilasiga bo'lgan chuqur sevgi.
Kardinal Reginald Pole va Margaretning eng mashhur o'g'li
Syuzan Xigginbotam ushbu kitob uchun juda ko'p tadqiqotlar olib bordi, bu harakat har bir sahifada yoritilgan. Muallif, mavjud bo'lgan barcha asosiy manbalardan foydalangan holda, Margaret Pole hayoti va o'limini qayta qurdi. Qarama -qarshiliklarni ajratib ko'rsatib, kamchiliklarni tushuntirib, u grafinya hikoyasini dastlabki kunlaridan tortib, oxirgi, dahshatli daqiqalariga qadar olib boradi. Included at the end of the book is an appendix of over 30 pages of written evidence taken in the Exeter Conspiracy a conspiracy involving at least 2 of her sons, which would see her imprisoned in the Tower for years before she was sent to the executioner’s block. It made for some absorbing reading late into the night.
All the key players in Margaret’s story are discussed, their actions and influence on Margaret’s life analysed and assessed. From Henry VIII to Princess Mary and Margaret’s own children. Susan Higginbotham’s analysis is unrivalled, her words painting vivid portraits of all the main characters who had a part to play Margaret’s life and explaining her relationships in detail.
Moreover, Margaret’s story is firmly placed in the wider context of English and European politics of the time and in the great upheaval of the Reformation. Where there is contention, the author presents all possible arguments, before giving her own opinion and explaining her reasoning. She makes clear where information is lacking and highlights where she is providing her own theory and opinions.
In my recent interview with her, I asked Susan Higginbotham if she saw Margaret as a victim or a heroine, and she replied:
I would say a heroine, because she had strong beliefs which she maintained in the face of pressure, and she conducted herself with courage and dignity throughout adversity. I don’t think she would like to be remembered as a victim.Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury
This biography of Margaret reinforces Susan Higginbotham’s statement. Margaret is portrayed as a strong, independent woman, who had raised a large family single-handed, following the death of her husband. Margaret had a strong faith and demonstrated great loyalty to the Tudor dynasty. Her courage and strength of purpose shines through on every page – as does her intelligence. Margaret Pole was no meek and feeble woman, she stood up for her beliefs, herself and her family, while always maintaining her loyalty to the crown.
Susan Higginbotham treats Margaret Pole with great compassion and dignity, telling her story – and that of her family – in such an engaging manner that the book is impossible to put down. Knowing how events will eventually play out makes it no less compelling.
It is a fascinating story and – ultimately – a sad one however, it’s also a story of faith, courage and perseverance. Margaret Pole: the Countess in the Tower is a wonderful read – shining a light on the life of a woman whose story deserves to be told.
Pictures courtesy of Wikipedia
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Reginald Pole – White Rose and Cardinal
The Pole family descended from Margaret, Countess of Salisbury (the daughter of the duke of Clarence who was allegedly executed in a vat of malmsey and Isobel Neville – elder daughter of the earl of Warwick a.k.a. The Kingmaker). She had four sons Henry (Lord Montagu), Arthur, Reginald and Geoffrey. There was also a daughter called Ursula. Had Richard III won the Battle of Bosworth and remained childless and Margaret’s brother the young earl of Warwick been deemed unfit to rule then his heirs would have been the Poles.
Young Reginald was born in about 1500. He was educated by the Carthusians in Sheen and from there studied at the universities of Oxford and Padua and from there to Paris all at the expense of his royal cousin King Henry VIII. There is a note in Henry’s accounts describing him as “Mr Pole, the king’s scholar.”
In the summer of 1530 he became caught up in the King’s Great Matter. In addition to using the Leviticus 20:21 and checking with Jewish communities in Europe as to their interpretation of the Old Testament in order to undermine Catherine of Aragon’s countering Deuteronomy argument, Henry also sent messengers to the great university to elicit their opinions on the matter. On May 1 Henry asked the University of Paris for an opinion and made Reginald his “dearest relative” the chief correspondent on the matter.
Reginald seems initially to have backed his cousin. His letters record that Paris found in Henry’s favour but that the other faction were looking for a counter-opinion. (Bernard: 214). By the end of the year, however, Reginald appears to have been having second thoughts. It was perhaps his concern over the divorce that led him to turn down Henry’s offer of the archbishopric of York following Wolsey’s demise. Henry must have thought that Reginald would be in favour of the divorce to offer him the post. He needed as many bishops on his side as possible. Henry offered the post to Reginald for a second time and saw him in person to discuss the matter. Apparently the sight of Henry was enough to convince Pole that he couldn’t go agains this own heart on the matter. He even sent a lengthy apology on the subject which no longer exists. In it he warned of the dispute that might arise if Princess Mary was disinherited and reminded Henry of the Wars of the Roses – which was perhaps not an entirely sensible thing to do as it reminded Henry about who had the Plantagenet blood flowing through their veins and who might have been monarchs in other circumstances.
In January 1532 Pole went off to Europe to continue with his academic studies and to keep a low profile which he did until 1535 when Henry demanded that he wanted Reginald’s opinion on the subject of Henry’s supremacy, the divorce and the break with Rome. Henry helpfully sent him some books on the subject. By the time Henry had his answer Sir Thomas More and Bishop Fisher were dead as were the Carthusian monks of the Charter House in Sheen who’d taught him as a boy. Reginald described Henry as a ‘wild beast’ being like a dirty barrel and incestuous (perhaps a reaction to the fact that Henry had an affair with Anne Boleyn’s sister Mary). It was perhaps not a response designed to win friends and influence people nor was it a very private response as it was soon published all over Europe later Reginald would claim that it was without his consent.
Henry politely suggested that Reginald return home for a face to face discussion.
By now Pope Paul III was in charge and he suggested that perhaps Reginald’s welcome would be rather too warm if he set foot on English shores. It can’t have helped that the Imperial Ambassador, Chapuys, had suggested that perhaps Reginald might be able to marry the Princess Mary and take the crown from Henry in 1534. The small matter of Pole’s religious orders seems not to have worried the ambassador unduly (though Pole didn’t celebrate his first mass until Queen Mary was on the throne). Chapuys had already told the Pole family to keep Reginald in Europe rather than at home where he’d most likely have ended up in the Tower at the very least.
On 22nd of December 1536 Reginald was made a cardinal having made a name for himself in Rome where his humanist education leant itself to the reform of the Catholic Church from within. To add insult to Henry VIII’s injury Reginald was made papal legate of England in February 1537.
Reginald’s actions reminded Henry that there was such a thing as a ‘white rose faction’. The Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536 was ultimately used to round up Reginald’s mother and brothers following the Exeter Conspiracy. It hadn’t helped Lord Montagu that he’d sent a letter to Reginald berating him for the contents of his book on the subject of Henry’s supremacy and the break from Rome. The poor man must have squirmed horribly when Thomas Cromwell turned up to visit him especially to read chunks of his brother’s rebuttal of Henry’s actions. Even the Countess of Salisbury had written to Reginald demanding that he come home and face the music. Both these letters had been seen by the King’s council before they were sent to Reginald (Seward: 295). By 1539 Geoffrey was in the Tower and he in his turned implicated the rest of his family. He, his brother and his mother would be executed.
Reginald, in Europe, found himself facing assassination attempts that would continue throughout Henry’s life was increasingly disturbed by the extent to which the Church in England faced destruction. Ultimately he sought the help of Francis I of France and also Catherine of Aragon’s nephew, Charles V, arguing that Henry was worse than the Turkish threat. Charles chose not to invade England and Reginald’s name found its way onto a bill of attainder in 1539. Henry VIII had come to hate his Plantagenet cousin. For Englishmen who didn’t want to lose their catholicism he became an alternative to the Tudors.
It was only when Henry VIII’s daughter Mary took the throne after the brief reigns of her half brother Edward VI and the nine days queen Lady Jane Grey that Pole returned to England after a long career as a papal diplomat. He’d even been suggested as pope. Mary wrote to her cousin asking for spiritual guidance, his attainder was reversed and despite a lack of concord with Mary’s spouse Philip II of Spain he stepped foot on English soil once more at Dover in 1554. The country was Catholic once more. He sought now to heal the breach with Rome – notable amongst the victims of Mary’s determination to wipe Protestantism from English thoughts included the burning of Thomas Cranmer who Pole replaced as Archbishop of Canterbury.
Reginald Pole died on the 17th November 1558 on the same day as Queen Mary. Their plan to return England and Wales to Catholicism bound to fail as Protestant Princess Elizabeth was now hailed Queen Elizabeth I.
The portrait of Pole pictured at the start of this post may be found at Hardwick Hall, a National Trust property, in Derbyshire.
Bernard, G.W. (2005) The King’s Reformation. New Haven and London: Yale University Press
Seward, Desmond. (2010) The Last White Rose: The Secret Wars of the Tudors. London: Constable
Reginald Pole - History
In part two of This Week in Tudor History for the week beginning 5th April, I talk about why Pope Paul IV branded Cardinal Pole a heretic and took away his legatine powers, before introducing you to a sea captain named Drake, but not Sir Francis Drake, and telling you about John Lumley, a baron who was involved with the Ridolfi Plot but kept his head, and a man who was recorded as owning a full-length portrait of Anne Boleyn.
4 November – A cardinal’s actions lead to his family’s undoing
On this day in Tudor history, 4th November 1538, Henry Pole, 1st Baron Montagu, his brother-in-law, Sir Edward Neville Henry Courtenay, Marquis of Exeter Courtenay’s wife, Gertrude Blount, and the couple’s son, Edward Courtenay, were all arrested for treason and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Montagu, Neville and Exeter, along with Montagu’s brother, Geoffrey Pole, were accused of plotting with Cardinal Reginald Pole against the king. Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, was also arrested, accused of the same.
But how had it come to this, when Henry VIII had sought Cardinal Pole’s opinion on his marriage and the papacy?
Find out what Cardinal Pole had done to upset the king, and what happened to his family and friends as a result, in today’s talk.
5 May – Can’t kill him for heresy, let’s try treason…
On this day in Tudor history, 5th May 1543, religious radical, Adam Damplip, also known as George Bucker, was hanged, drawn and quartered in Calais, which was an English territory at the time.
Although it was his heretical preaching that had got him into trouble, he couldn’t be executed as a heretic, so he was condemned as a traitor instead – clever, but nasty!
Let me explain more in today’s talk.
15 December – Cardinal Pole is laid to rest
On this day in Tudor history, 15th December 1558, Cardinal Reginald Pole, Mary I’s Archbishop of Canterbury and her chief advisor, was buried at Canterbury Cathedral. Coincidentally, Cardinal Pole had died the same day as his queen, on 17th November 1558.
Find out a bit more about Cardinal Pole, his background, death and burial, in today’s talk.
29 August – The sad story of Geoffrey Pole
On this day in Tudor history, 29th August 1538, Geoffrey Pole, son of Sir Richard Pole and Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, was arrested. He was already on thin ice, having been a staunch supporter of Queen Catherine of Aragon and Princess Mary, but he now was suspected, like other members of his family, of being in communication with his brother, Cardinal Reginald Pole, a man who had upset King Henry VIII by writing a treatise against him and his policies.
Unlike other members of his family, including Margaret Pole, Geoffrey managed to survive this trouble – how? Nima uchun? What happened?
I explain all in today’s talk.
4 August – 13 Executions!
Yes, you read that correctly! On this day in Tudor history, 4th August 1540, thirteen men were executed in London – 12 by being hanged, drawn and quartered, and one by being hanged. Awful!
In today’s talk, I explain who these 13 men were and why they were attainted by Parliament and executed.
17 November 1558 – The death of Reginald Pole, Archbishop of Canterbury
Did you know that 17th November 1558 was the death date of not only Queen Mary I, but also of Reginald Pole, Mary’s Archbishop of Canterbury? Strange, isn’t it?
15 December 1558 – The burial of Cardinal Reginald Pole
Cardinal Pole died on the very same day as his beloved queen, Mary I. Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles record his death:
Leauing queene Marie being dead & gone, you are to vnderstand and note, that the same euening, or (as some haue written) the next daie after the said queens death,The death of [. ]rdinall Poole. Cardinall Poole the bishop of Romes legat departed out of this life, hauing beene not long afore made archbishop of Canturburie: he died at his house ouer against Westminster commonlie called Lambe [. ]h, and was buried in Christs church at Can|turburie.
The Chronicles go on to give a not so flattering account of Cardinal Pole's life, accusing him of "barbarous" behaviour and blemishing "the honour of his descent. You can read this account in the 1587 version of The Chronicles at The Holinshed Project.
Diarist and merchant Henry Machyn records how Cardinal Pole's remains were taken on 10th December from Lambeth to Canterbury in preparation for his burial:
The sam mornyng my lord cardenall was [removed from] Lambeth, and cared toward Canturbery with grett [company in] blake and he was cared in a charett with [banner-]rolles wroth [wrought] with fyne gold and grett baners [of arms,] and iiij baners of santes in owllo [oil].
In Ecclesiastical Memorials, John Strype writes:
Cardinal Pole died the same day that Queen Mary did and not many hours after her. His last will may be seen in Holinshed's History. Therein he desired his successor would not sue his executors for dilapidations, seeing he had bestowed more than a thousand pounds within these few years in repairing and making such houses as belonged to the see, since he came to it. The overseers of his will were Nicholas Archbishop of York, lord chancellor Thomas Bishop of Ely Ed. Lord Hastings, lord chamberlain Sir John Boxal, the Queen's secretary Sir Edward Cordal, master of the rolls Henry Cole, vicar general of the spiritualities.
Strype goes on to describe how there was "a secret report among Papists, abroad soon after, that both Queen Mary and Cardinal Pole, came to their ends by poison but that Dr. Haddon, "a knowing man", put their deaths down to "an infectious fever that the nation then laboured under [. ] an outrageous burning fever [. ]".
Birth, Education, and Early Life 1500-1526
Reginald Pole, the fourth and youngest son of Sir Richard Pole and his wife Margaret Countess of Salisbury, was born on March 3, 1500, at Stourton Castle, Staffordshire.
His father, the representative of an ancient and honorable Welsh family, was in high favor at the Court of Henry VII., under whom he had served in Scotland and the king had appointed him, on account of his valor and accomplishments, to be chief gentleman-of-the-bedchamber to his elder son, Arthur, Prince of Wales. He died a few years after Reginald's birth.
Through his mother, Blessed Margaret Pole, daughter of George Duke of Clarence, niece of Edward IV., and only sister and heiress of that unfortunate Earl of Warwick long in prison on a charge of pretended treason, and finally beheaded by Henry VII., Reginald was of purely royal descent. In his veins ran the blood of the ancient houses of England, Spain, France, and Castile but an even greater distinction was to be his. He was destined to be the son of a martyr, "which," as he wrote in 1541, "is certainly grander than to be born of any royal house."
Of his three brothers, the eldest, Henry Lord Montague, was beheaded in 1539 on Tower Hill, nominally for high treason in reality for sympathy with his exiled brother and for opposing Henry VIII.'s supremacy. The second, Geoffrey, seems to have been a rather restless person, much mixed up in political schemes. It was his evidence, extorted under fear of torture and death, which was instrumental in the condemnation of his mother and elder brother, and for which the grateful Henry granted him a free pardon. The third brother, Arthur, was sentenced to death under Elizabeth, but reprieved, on account of his relationship to the Queen. His only sister, Ursula, married Lord Stafford, son of the Duke of Buckingham.
Reginald Pole's mother, as we learn from their letters to each other, offered him unreservedly, at his birth, to God and so perfect was her trust that she took no pains to provide for his education and future, willing that her son should owe even his temporal welfare directly to God, and not to her. Nor was she disappointed of her hope, for Henry VIII., Reginald's second cousin, before his succession in 1509, undertook the entire charge of the little boy's education, and when he was only seven, sent him to school as mediaeval custom was—to the Carthusians at Sheen, where he spent five happy years, and developed unusual intellectual gifts. His parents seem to have always intended him for the priesthood and his character and peculiar gifts all tended to an ecclesiastical career.
When he was twelve he went to Oxford and entered at Magdalen, where he was called a "nobleman of the college," and had an apartment in the president's house. Hence forward we find such entries as these in the King's Book of Payments: "To Reginald Pole . . . for his exhibition at school this year, 12." This was on March 28, 1512, and on June 8 of the next year there is another: "For Reginald Pole, student in the University of Oxford, Pension which the . . . Prior of St. Frideswide is bound to give to a clerk of the King's nomination, until he be promoted to a competent benefice by the said Prior." At Oxford he made extraordinary progress. The great Renaissance movement, then spreading all over Europe, had reached the English universities. Students and scholars everywhere were learning to love learning for its own sake, and to read the wealth of classic literature in the languages in which it was written. England, however, was behind the Continent. Though Oxford could boast of Linacre and Latimer, men whose names were of European fame, the study of Greek in the universities was neglected, chiefly from a lack of capable teachers. Notwithstanding, Linacre, the King's physician, a sound scholar, and man of ready wit, may, with his friend Latimer, lay claim to have been the true restorer of learning in England, and to have laid the foundation of that reputation which Oxford now enjoys.
Under these masters Reginald Pole progressed as fast as even they could desire. He could "dispute for thirty days in logic and ethics," had a ripe knowledge of Latin, and a graceful knack of writing clever Latin verse. The thought of the priesthood seems to have been, for the present, put aside to allow more time for the fascinating study of "polite learning"—always a passion with Pole.
His friendship with Blessed Thomas More seems to have begun at Oxford, in connection with which a charming little story comes down to us. The future Lord Chancellor was ill, and sent to Oxford for medical advice. Pole happened to hear of this, and hastened to collect the very highest opinions upon More's case which the university could afford. Linacre, no doubt, was consulted and the prescription thus obtained was sent home by Pole to his mother, the Countess of Salisbury, to be made up for the invalid. Long after this More speaks of the great pleasure caused him by Pole's commendation of a Latin letter written by his favorite daughter, Margaret. The friendship was life-long, though the friends saw but little of each other.
In 1515 Pole took his B.A. degree, for which we read that he petitioned to have "a gown and robes suitable" and also for admission to the public library. As was customary with intending candidates for the priesthood, especially those of noble family, Pole was presented by Henry VIII. with the titles and revenues of several benefices, though he was not yet even in minor orders but he was responsible for the maintenance of priests, at his own charges, to fulfill the duties which he was incapable of undertaking himself. In Pole's case this obligation was rigidly carried out. In 1517 he became Prebendary of Roscombe, "in the Cathedral Church of Salisbury," and of Yatminster, or Gatcombe Secunda, in the same diocese. On February 12, 1518, "Reginald Poole, clk," was presented to the "collegiate church of Wynbourne Mynstre, Salisbury diocese" and about the same time he received the appointment of Dean of Exeter.
But he had no intention of settling down quietly to enjoy these preferments. For some years he had felt the need of a more perfect study of Greek. Much as he loved Oxford, much as he owed to it, it was only on the Continent that his desire could be fulfilled. His eyes turned, not to the brilliant university of Paris, but to Italy to the wonderful city in which at that time the greatest scholars in the world, with perhaps one exception, were gathered. His mother, who loved him intensely, understood his longing and gave her consent. His tutors at Oxford approved. The king promised him an allowance of 500 crowns yearly, beyond his ecclesiastical revenues of 1000 crowns and in February 1521 we find the first entry of this in the King's Book of Payments: "to Mr. Pole, whom the King sends to Italy, finding for one year, 100." And so, at the close of 1520, Reginald Pole, crowned with university honors, left Oxford for Padua.
On April 1, 1521, King Henry sent a message to the Signory of Venice, recommending "a nephew" of his, "the Lord Reginald . . . who is going to study at Padua" and on May 21 of the same year a patent was made out for "Sir Reginald Pole, a kinsman of the King of England, who is come to study at Padua," authorizing him to export plate, clothes, etc.
The ancient city of Padua, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was in truth the Athens of Europe. Annexed by Venice, after a long and checkered history, in the year 1406, the city of St. Antony had become the center to which all the greatest scholars, thinkers, and literati of the day were instinctively attracted. Its noble university was the pride of Italy and the world. The humanities, physics, logic, rhetoric, ethics, science, here found their most subtle exponents and professors. No branch of literature, ancient or modern, was neglected, but the study of Greek was considered of paramount importance, and took precedence of that of any other language. Pope Leo X., himself a brilliant man of letters, was a patron of the University of Padua, and in Pole's day to have studied there was the highest distinction obtainable by any scholar.
The city, with its picturesque, cobbled, arcaded streets, its many-arched bridges, and massive walls and towers, has probably changed but little since the days when the young English student, enthusiastic and sensitively receptive, rode with his well-appointed retinue through the fertile country of northern Italy, where Antony the Miracle Worker, dead for 300 years, lived as "the Saint," in the hearts of the people just as he lives, a vivid reality, to-day.
It must have been a journey quick with strange new impressions. After the gigantic barrier of snow-capped Alps behind them had faded into the clouds, and the beautiful mountain-country, richly wooded, or grey and barren, furrowed with the stony beds of rapid-rushing rivers had been left behind, the road ran for many miles across a richly cultivated plain which a few months later would be thick with leafy vineyards and miles of flower-meadows and corn-fields and which even then in early spring must have been a fragrant sea of flowering orchards, rosy apple-blossom and snowy pear and leagues of pale pink peach-bloom beyond the cold brown fields a—feast of color.
It was the country that he loved, and to which his thoughts, until his death, continually turned. Here and there would be a little brown red-roofed town, clustering round some ancient hoary castle, whose turrets were visible far across the plain and everywhere, like the masts of distant ships rose the slender shafts of the village campanili.
And then at last the grey walls of the city, with its fortress-like Duomo, and two vast Basilicas in whose picturesque streets and market-place gaily dressed peasants met and mingled with students and scholars from England and France, Germany and Spain, Greece and the Low Countries—men of all ranks and of almost every nation under heaven.
No wonder Pole, from the beginning, felt at home there. He carried introductions to the heads of the university, and his arrival seems to have created a certain sensation in Padua which was in nowise lessened during his six years residence there. He took a suitable house and, as was customary amongst wealthy students, especially those of noble blood, he set about forming a "household" of learned men, by whose conversation and companionship he could profit daily, and whose instruction would be most valuable in his studies. The chief of these was Longolius, a young and brilliant Fleming, one of the most gifted men in the university, a genius who made his mark on his age, though he died when only thirty-four, before the great work of his life was finished his dying message, in a touching letter, being to Reginald Pole, to whom he left his library. He had undertaken to refute the heresy of the apostate Luther, but only one of the five great volumes of the treatise was completed before his early death. He had an absolute mastery of the Latin tongue, which even in the days when it was the common language of the learned, marked him out as the most brilliant orator and faultless writer of Latin prose and verse in the university. Under another great professor, Leonicus, Reginald Pole studied his beloved Greek and a third member of the household was Thomas Lupset, the young secretary of the English Ambassador at Venice, with whom Pole formed a warm friendship. Here, too, were Thomas Starkey, who became a few years later so conspicuous a feature in Pole's life John Bonamico and a young Venetian noble, Count Bembo, perhaps Pole's greatest friend in Padua.
For his character and personality were unusually attractive all Padua considered him as a member of the English royal family and was correspondingly proud of him. He was young, rich, gifted possessed great charm of manner, and an eager and ingenuous enthusiasm which seems to have won all hearts. His great natural modesty, and a certain simplicity and directness, together with a gravity in some respects beyond his years balanced his more brilliant qualities and gave his judgment a weight which was respected not only in the university, but a few years later by Henry VIII. himself, on the question which was to convulse Christendom. With Aloysius Priuli, another representative of a noble Venetian house, Pole formed a friendship which lasted until his death and for which Priuli gladly sacrificed his prospects and destined career, forsaking everything to become the companion and secretary of the man who was dearest to him on earth.
The famous Erasmus, the greatest scholar in Europe, was then at Padua, and was greatly attracted by the young Englishman. In his letters at this time there are several references to Pole, dwelling not only on his brilliant attainments, but his personal charm and character. He seems to have impressed everyone who knew him.
On March 26, 1523, we find an entry in the annals of the Council of Ten to enjoin their "Governors of Padua . . . to permit the Most Illustrious and Reverend Reginald Pole, British-born, a student in our University to carry weapons there . . . .he and four of his servants, for the security of his person . . . according to his request made through the English Ambassador." This ambassador was an old friend, Dr. Richard Pace, of whom we hear more two years later, when on February 6, 1525, yo'nalishida for Venice he visited "the King's nephew" at Padua and it was with him that Pole stayed when he visited Venice the following June. "It is Corpus Christi Day, and the Doge, clad in cloth of gold, with a crimson satin mantle and crimson ducal cap, came to Mass in St. Mark's Church, with the ambassadors from the Pope, England, Austria, Milan, Ferrara and Mantua. . . . Behind them, with the councilors, was the nephew of the King of England, who is studying at Padua, and who walked with . . . [the] Bishop of Paphos," A year later, in July 1526, after his visit to Rome, we find him at Venice again, on the occasion of the magnificent pageants organized at the publication of the Holy League. "The only personage in the [Doges] palace was the cousin of the King of England, by name Reginald Pole. He is studying at Padua, and came hither to the house of the English ambassador to see this pageant which was a very beautiful one." In September of the same year he was still at Padua, for: "the English ambassador has gone to Padua [from Venice] to visit the relation of the King who is studying there."
In 1524 Dr. Fox made him a Fellow of the new college of Corpus Christi at Oxford, of which he was the founder and this distinction gave at least as much pleasure to his Italian friends as to Pole himself.
In 1525 he paid a short visit to Rome, setting out with a small retinue, and in tending to travel very quietly, as became a pilgrim to the Holy City. But to his surprise he found himself feted and honored wherever he went. When he arrived at Verona Monsignor Ghiberti, the bishop, a personal stranger to him, came out and welcomed him with great courtesy and affection, and Pole discovered that it was to this prelate that he owed the reception with which he had met at every halting place on his journey. He was deeply touched by Ghiberti's kindness, and the bishop became one of his closest friends one indeed to whom he turned at all times for sympathy and encouragement.
His stay in Rome was short. After visiting the Holy Places he returned to Padua by way of Verona without being presented at the Papal Court, probably for political reasons. At the close of 1526 he returned, by the king's wish, to England and at his command, to Court.
His public career was now to begin. Henceforth Reginald Pole was to help to make English history.
Reginald Pole (easy dates 1500 – 1558)
Please note that this important character from history had the plain surname of Pole. His name is not De la Pole – quite a different family*. Our subject became a Cardinal and later Archbishop of Canterbury, but through his mother (the Countess of Salisbury) he had a Yorkist claim to the throne of England. Being an intelligent man, he did not press this claim, or even mention it, though it must have passed through his mind on certain occasions.
Pole was an ardent Roman Catholic, and this fact, added to his noble birth, made him an important figure not so much in England(Protestant) as in other European countries (Catholic). The English Protestant Reformation was in progress Roman church properties, tithes, ‘benevolences’ etc. were being grabbed by the Crown and the nobles, and by 1552 Reginald had gone to live out of England, thoroughly disenchanted with Henry VIII and the Reformation they were both evil according to him, and in the case of the Monarch he was right.
Abroad he was given a Cardinal’s hat and powers, and wasted no time before trying to persuade the rulers of France and Spain to invade England and thus stamp out Protestantism. The rulers were not (at that time) to be persuaded, and in Britain Henry VIII (q.v.) true to form, murdered Pole’s brother and ancient mother to punish Reginald’s presumption and lèsé majesté.
Not even England’s Ivan the Terrible could live for ever, and Reginald Pole was invited to return home one year after Henry’s death in 1547. His task was to assist the new Queen, Mary Tudor (q.v.) in her counter-reformation. In the middle of the 16 th century religion had huge importance, and knowing which church to use for worship could save your head, or being burnt alive in public.
Reginald was made Archbishop of Canterbury, a title held by eitherCatholics or Protestants, and began making reforms most of which were sensible. But he did not admire the Queen’s persecution of Protestants, and dared to protest.
By the time of his death in 1558 his reforms had been neglected or banned, and he died a desperately disappointed man.
* William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk (1396 – 1450) was defeated by Joan of Arc and forced to call off the siege of Orléans)